The importance of learning Chinese pinyin

Hanyu Pinyin is the golden key for pupils to open the door to knowledge and the ladder to the scientific peak. By learning Pinyin, you can let your child read the words in your textbook and read them fluently. As children’s literacy increases, so does the level of reading and writing. Therefore, pinyin is the basis of literacy, reading, the premise of the exercise, but also to learn Chinese indispensable part. Therefore, in primary schools not only to learn Hanyu Pinyin, but also must be mastered and applied well. I will talk about the importance of learning Hanyu Pinyin from three aspects.

Key words 1: conducive to the learning of literacy

With pinyin, students can recognize their words and speed up the pace of literacy. If you encounter unknown words in the learning process, guide students to spell a spell with the help of pinyin, read a few times and read more times. During repeated spelling, students learn Chinese characters and also learn how to read Chinese characters . Students learn Hanyu Pinyin, with the help of this tool, their own understanding of the phonetic part of the word, the classic writings in Pinyin Chinese characters, learn some vocabulary. Hanyu Pinyin can feel amazing, can help them read quasi-phonetic (including the difference between polyphonic, correct wrong-reading words), recognize words, access to independent literacy skills. This will stimulate students’ interest in literacy and speed up their literacy so that students can read and write in listening, speaking, reading and writing and improve the quality of literacy. Thus, Hanyu Pinyin is an important and effective tool for literacy.

Keyword 2: to help children read

Learn Hanyu Pinyin, on the one hand, let students through reading to consolidate the Hanyu Pinyin, on the other hand, let students read these texts with the help of Pinyin, through the use of Hanyu Pinyin to read the practice, they read through repeated, can pronounce the pronunciation correctly, can read the text through smoothly, can improve reading ability.

On the basis of the students ‘ reading practice, the teacher can also read out the feelings with the directed reading instruction. Through the reading study, the students ‘ comprehensive quality has been further improved.

This shows that in the students learn the golden age of the mother tongue, reading classics, read, to accumulate as many language materials, cultivate good culture, broaden the personal sense of space, for their future high-level, high-grade development lay a deep foundation.

Key words 3: learn mandarin well

China is a multi-ethnic country, all nationalities have their own language, different regions of the language have obvious differences. Language inconsistency, so that people in the production and life of mutual exchange also brought great inconvenience. Therefore, to learn Mandarin, speak Mandarin has become a necessary ability of people in today’s society. Learning Hanyu Pinyin can help you speak Mandarin. And from the primary school literacy stage, for its lifelong development lay a good foundation.

In short, learn Hanyu Pinyin to students to learn Chinese language, the students ‘ comprehensive quality of the formation and improvement, to help children smoothly into the primary school.

Pinyin tone alphabet

What is the Chinese pinyin vowel?

What is the pinyin initials?

The purpose of learning Chinese pinyin

The ten teaching methods of hanyu pinyin

How do middle-aged people learn Hanyu Pinyin?

How to learn Chinese characters in an interesting way?

In the practice of primary school classroom teaching, the teaching of Chinese characters is both basic and complicated. It is the key content of Chinese teaching. Based on the actual situation of Chinese education, this paper elaborates on the correctness of expression and application of Chinese characters in primary Chinese classrooms, Perspective and thinking, with interesting learning methods to guide the pupil to help the text of the study of culture.

The origin and development of Chinese characters are closely linked with the civilization of our Chinese nation. It can be said that without the Chinese characters there is no brilliant culture of our nation. Text learning is also an important part of language learning, especially for primary school students who have received primary education. However, there are many ways of learning Chinese characters. For elementary school, our classroom teaching should focus more on the fun of learning, cultivating pupils’ learning interest and good study habits. This article mainly talks about some of the interesting ways of Chinese characters in primary school teaching.

One, the auxiliary tool of Chinese learning – hanyu pinyin

What is the Chinese pinyin vowel?

What is the pinyin initials?

How to learn Chinese phonetic alphabet

How do middle-aged people learn Hanyu Pinyin?

Since the Chinese government formally announced the Hanyu pinyin scheme in 1958, the Hanyu pinyin scheme has been rapidly promoted in China and the world. The “General Chinese Language Law of the People’s Republic of China”, which was implemented on January 1, 2001, stipulates in Article 18 that “the common language of the country adopts the” Hanyu Pinyin Scheme “as a pinyin and phonetic transcription tool. The legal status of Hanyu Pinyin Act was established. However, Hanyu pinyin, as the content of Chinese language education in the elementary school of primary education, is crucial and indispensable for the role of reading and writing.

At present, there are many ways of teaching Chinese literacy: focus on reading, decentralization, “phonetic reading, reading and writing in advance”, combining various forms of literacy, and so on. Either way, we must learn Chinese Pinyin. Phonetic pronunciation of Chinese characters note clearly, students can thus check dictionary, improve the ability of independent study, but also improve the efficiency of literacy. If the dictionary as a literacy stick, then pinyin can be called “made of walking stick wood”, we can see that the basic role of pinyin.

Test in the process of teaching, students’ mastery of Chinese pinyin, so as to achieve the student can to memorization of phonetic textbooks and reading of Chinese characters, to have learned pinyin of Chinese characters, two-way learning. At the same time, in the process of literacy, teachers can make colorful Chinese characters and use pinyin teaching tools to assist classroom teaching. Pinyin literacy method is helpful to the increased amount of student literacy, improve the literacy level of solid, and can effectively correct local dialects, improve the standardization of the Chinese text and the expansion of mandarin. This method is suitable for the Chinese classroom in the lower grade of primary school, suitable for the elementary school students who have no written foundation.

Second, talk about the study of Chinese characters from the structure and evolution of Chinese characters

We know that Chinese characters belong to the ideographic system of text, glyphs and meaning are closely related, if we can make the correct analysis of the body structure of Chinese characters, then for us to understand and grasp most of the original meaning of Chinese characters and extended meaning has a great Help, suitable for elementary and middle-aged students to learn Chinese characters.

We all know that the six in Chinese characters include: pictographic, referring to, knowing, phonetic, turning, and under the guise. For some Chinese characters, by analyzing the structure of Chinese characters, we can get a better understanding of the phonetic meanings of Chinese characters, and can easily master a series of similar structures. Teachers can explain the meaning and shape, the students of the gradual and progressive literacy, will be faster and better completion of Chinese character learning, suitable for the Chinese style similar to the professor, supplemented by the classroom blackboard writing, simple strokes form decomposition teaching, so vivid and not inflexible. At the same time, the shape of Chinese characters has been more than more than 3,000 years of history, experienced the Oracle, inscriptions, seal, official script, cursive, regular script, cursive script seven stages, the historical development of a long history. Encountered in the teaching of individual difficult Chinese characters, teachers can also be explained from the origin of the evolution of Chinese characters, the history of the study of Chinese characters, can enhance the interest of students to explore learning, stimulate the enthusiasm for learning.

Chinese character practical teaching method

How can foreigners learn Chinese quickly?

Learn 100 Chinese characters in Chinese

How to make students learn Chinese characters easily?

Chinese character learning tips

Third, Chinese teaching and multimedia and gaming activities combined

In all senses, with the teaching activities, there are teaching methods and tools, only at different times, and the various teaching media play different roles in teaching. With the development of the times, the emergence of teaching media such as slide projectors, projectors and television sets has gradually replaced the traditional books and blackboards and played a major role in teaching, assisting teachers in delivering teaching information. The rapid development of multimedia technology, virtual reality technology, artificial intelligence technology is no longer a simple teaching method, it can also create a variety of learning environment for students to improve learning efficiency, as a cognitive tool for students to develop students’ thinking Ability and ability to solve problems. Therefore, in the present teaching, the media play an increasingly important role.

For primary school students’ cognitive ability and teaching content and teaching objectives in primary school, it is necessary and effective to use multimedia facilities in classroom teaching. There are two reasons: First, the content of primary school teaching is relatively easy and simple, the teacher has enough time for non-traditional multimedia teaching demonstration; second, the characteristics of primary school students’ intellectual factors, their attention needs to be effectively concentrated, and The use of multimedia teaching, is very lively and interesting, students can watch video and audio, through vivid, vivid images, sounds, sweet sound to change teaching scenarios, so as to achieve the purpose of learning Chinese characters.

In the classroom teaching, the conditional teacher needs to prepare the courseware beforehand, consummates own material, uses the multimedia equipment, the teacher may carry on the display in the multimedia to the traditional meaning teaching, may broadcast some related Chinese characters teaching courseware. Including the origin of the legend, the evolution of Chinese characters, the type of Chinese characters, the meaning of Chinese characters, homonym, similar words, extended to a variety of words, idioms, sayings, as well as in various contexts in the application of Chinese characters.

Teachers can make their own courseware resources or find teaching videos, organize students to actively participate in teaching activities, break through the boring mode of traditional teaching, use multimedia presentations to arrange some interesting little word games, literacy contest, Chinese characters group solitaire, and Chinese character language display , So that each classmate into the learning of Chinese characters in the classroom, so fun full reflected in the classroom. This mode of teaching can infect students with concrete, vivid and vivid images, impress students and enhance the efficiency and enthusiasm of learning Chinese characters.

Of course, the application of multimedia also has certain limitations, according to the specific situation we should specific analysis, when the multi-media teaching can not completely discard the traditional teaching mode of the fundamental teaching status. Always remember that the application of multimedia is only a secondary teaching mode, it is not practical to fully apply to all teaching, it is also very difficult.

In short, there are many effective and practical ways to apply Chinese characters in primary school classroom teaching. However, based on the direction of the new curriculum reform, we can see that in primary school, fun can not be ignored. Teachers should pay attention to the transfer of the overall classroom atmosphere, use various teaching methods, pay attention to enhancing the interest of teaching and students’ interest in learning Study enthusiasm, and ultimately greatly improve the efficiency of students to achieve the improvement of students’ comprehensive ability. Make classroom teaching more exciting, learning process more harmonious.

Chinese tone change how to learn?

When a foreigner learns Chinese, pronunciation is a very important one. Personally think tone is more important than pinyin. Since tone is not available in most countries’ languages, its position in Chinese is also quite significant, and many words differentiate themselves by tone.

With soft, tone a total of 5 species. One, two, three, four and softly. The tone of each tone as shown below:

Chinese tone change how to learn?

Four tones detailed

A cry,The tone was flat and high. The tuning is always at the top 55.

Second sound,Start higher and continue to rise in tone. As shown, adjust the value from 3 to 5.

Three sound,Just started to fall, and then rise in tone. Transfer value at 214.

Four sound,At the beginning it was very high, and then it went down all the way down to a 5-1.

See above, many foreigners will feel that three is a more difficult tone. But in fact, three voices in the spoken language, not always read into the pitch of 214. If a three-voice text is followed by three, the first three sound becomes two. For example: Hello nǐhǎo→ hello níhǎo.

If the three voices are followed by one, two, four and softly, the three voices in the front generally turn into half three, that is, 21 pitch. For example, we wǒmen. Three voices will read 214 pitch only at the end of the word and at the end of the sentence.

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 1 ɑ o e

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 2 i u ü

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 3 y w

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 4 b p m f

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 5 d t n l

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 6 g k h

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 7 j q x

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 8 z c s

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 9 zh ch sh r

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 10 fù xí

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 11 ɑi ei ui

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 12 ɑo ou iu

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 13 ie üe er

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 14 ɑn en in

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 15 un ün

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 16 ɑng eng ing ong

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 17 fù xí

Mandarin tone what are the characteristics

Pinyin tone alphabet

Example Description

In Chinese, in addition to the three, the same will be the same as the modulation of “one” and “no”.

The word “one” is read or used at the end of the sentence, or the ordinal number or cardinal number. For example, the first floor, Shuoyibuer, read two before four. For example, a piece of money, read four before four. For example, a dollar, read softly when sandwiched between the same words. For example, take a look;

“No” reads the original sound at the end of the sentence, the end of the word, and the non-fourth. Read two before four. For example, good; Read softly between words. For example, great to go.

After knowing some of the words in the above Chinese language, it is easy to express the same situation.

Chinese character learning tips

The language is extensive and profound, does the child that just go to school feel difficult? Mom and dad, you can’t do anything about it? There is a secret to learning Chinese characters, so long as you master the secret, anyone can become a Chinese dictionary.

How to make students learn Chinese characters easily?

Learn 100 Chinese characters in Chinese

Chinese character practical teaching method

Chinese character learning tips

Associative memory method

The Chinese characters are extensive and profound, so they can use the associative memory method to connect the words with specific parts into a sentence.

For example, with the word “heart” : missing is a kind of very hanging thing, such as shadow with the silent and without interest. As a result, these specific parts of the text will “linger in my mind”.

Drawing and Literacy method

“In fact, the image of Chinese characters is not initially we see, but after a long evolutionary process, the first is the knot, then is pictographs, the last is now simplified, but a lot of the meaning of Chinese characters remain hieroglyphs, therefore, drawing literacy method also can yet be regarded as a literate.” “Yang said.

In the process of memorizing Chinese characters, using a pen to draw out the general shape of a thing makes a simple and vivid picture, which is more intuitive and easier to accept than the information conveyed by the language.

Such as memorization “moon and water” and other characters, the student in a small river, on the paper attached to draw three hills, then improve the occasion, the river turn into a “water”, the hill evolved into “mountain”. In this way, it can accurately understand and understand the meaning of Chinese characters, and also remember the shape of Chinese characters, forming a deep and strong impression and improving the efficiency of memorizing Chinese characters.

Code Shun slip literacy method

The child sex play, if can combine teaching yu le, take advantage of the child’s psychological characteristic, make some Chinese characters into fluent, will let the Chinese character become vivid and interesting.

As “from” the word: two people do friends, tandem follow, such as the “spring” word, make up for, three people together in the sunshine, and the more complex “blue” word, make up for: aunt wang, beautiful white, butt sitting on the stone. Similarly, this method can be used in memorizing some type of near word.

Crossword notation

The same use of children love to play the nature, in addition to knitting jingle, can also guess crossword, can improve the interest of students to read, but also to enable students to long knowledge, broaden their horizons, is to train students to develop a good desire to learn from childhood.

such as: 1, bite off a cow’s tail—-tell. 2. A man sleeps by a tree—-Hugh. 3, cattle walk the bridge-born.

Look for literacy

By changing the Chinese character to the side, deepen the memory. If you remember the word “follow”, you can contact the Chinese characters you know before to memorize it: “follow” and replace “very” and “double side” with “feet”. “Class”, the “tree” of the “tree” “next to the word” and so on.

Of course, in the memorization of Chinese characters, by observing, thinking, discussing and arguing, from the aspects of ministry, structure, and so on, we should classify the characters and find the rules of learning.

After learning a lot of the words “beside the wooden word”, the students know that the words “beside the wooden word” are mostly not related to the tree. I further guided the students to conclude that most of the words related to “water” have “three water”, and “next to the month” is usually related to the body.

This is not the most comprehensive, the Chinese character is extensive and profound, still waiting for the students to explore the discovery themselves, will understand the mystery of the Chinese characters.

Putonghua Proficiency Test Level Standard Introduction

The standard of putonghua proficiency test (putonghua proficiency test) issued by the national language and text work committee is the national standard for the classification of putonghua proficiency levels. The level of putonghua is divided into three grades: one, two, three, and each grade is divided into two grades; Grade a is the highest, grade 3 b is the lowest. The test subjects’ putonghua level is determined according to the score obtained in the test.

Mandarin grade standards

Level 1

Grade a (97 points and above)

When reading and talking freely, the pronunciation standard, vocabulary, grammar is correct, the intonation is natural, the expression is fluent. The total test loss rate is within 3%.

B et al (92 points and above but less than 97 points)

When reading aloud and talking freely, the pronunciation standard, vocabulary, grammar is correct, the intonation is natural, the expression is fluent. I have the pronunciation, the word adjustment error. Test total lose rate is within 8%.

The secondary

Grade a (87 points and above but less than 92)

When reading aloud and talking freely, the basic standard of vocal rhythm sounds, the intonation is natural, the expression is fluent. A few difficult points (flat warping tongue, front and rear nasal vowels, side nasal sound, etc.) sometimes make mistakes. Vocabulary and grammar are rarely wrong. Test total loss rate within 13%.

B et al. (80 points and above but less than 87 points)

When reading aloud and talking freely, individual values are not allowed. Sounds more difficult (flat become warped tongue before and after the sound, the nasal end, nasal, fu – hu, z – useful – j, plenum unaspirated, I – u all, keep media, turbidity affricate, losing u, after finals tone, etc.), more mistakes. The dialect is not obvious, there is the use of dialect words, dialect grammar. The total test loss rate is within 20%.

Three levels

Grade a (70 points and above but less than 80 points)

When reading aloud and talking freely, there are a lot of mistakes in pronunciation. The tone of the dialect is obvious. Vocabulary, grammar mistakes. Test total loss rate within 30%.

B et al. (60 points and above but less than 70 points)

When reading aloud and talking freely, there are many mistakes in pronunciation, and the pronunciation is prominent. The tone of the dialect is obvious. There are many mistakes in vocabulary and grammar. The stranger listened to his conversation without understanding. The total test loss rate is within 40%.

Mandarin test outline

(putonghua proficiency test (PSC) is issued by the national language and text working committee and is the national unified outline for the test of putonghua proficiency test. Putonghua proficiency test paper is all from the outline.

The content is introduced

(1) mandarin speech analysis, brief and accurate description and introduction of the tone of putonghua to guide the readers to learn mandarin. This is not part of the test range.

(2) provide common words (glossary), table 1 and table 2. Table 1 is compiled according to the Chinese proficiency level and the syllabus of the Chinese proficiency test, which is published in the Chinese language teaching office and the Chinese proficiency test department. In table 2, some common words in the dictionary of modern Chinese dictionary compiled by the dictionary office of the institute of linguistics of Chinese academy of social sciences were selected, with 15,496 articles. These words can basically meet the general oral communication and correct reading the general written material needs, is one of the scope of the test. In the test, two test items were read syllable word and double syllable word. Among them, the words selected from table 1 accounted for 60%, and the words selected from table 2 accounted for 40%.

(3) it provides some common words and phrases that are not consistent with the standard of mandarin. In the test, the selected part is used to measure the proficiency of the Chinese grammar of the examinee.

(4) provide 50 reading materials in order 1 to 50 for reading test. During the test, the candidate randomly selected two Numbers to determine one of the tests.

(5) list the topic of 1-50 as the topic of speech test. At the time of the test, the candidate randomly selected two Numbers to determine one of the topics for the speech test.

(6) the mandarin level test outline in general also expounds the requirements and characteristics of putonghua proficiency test, the volume of putonghua proficiency test system requirements, putonghua proficiency test score. Therefore, those who participate in the putonghua proficiency test must first learn and master the content of the outline and carry out the necessary training before being tested on the basis of the conditions.

Putonghua test papers introduced

Putonghua proficiency test paper consists of five test items with a total score of 100.

(1) reading monosyllabic words 100, time limit 3 minutes, accounting for 10 points. Objective to test the pronunciation of mandarin initials, finals and tones.

(2) read two syllable words with 50 words, and the time limit is 3 minutes, accounting for 20 points. The aim is to check the pronunciation, rhyme and tone of the test, and to check the tone, rhyme and tone.

(3) judge the test, and the time limit is 3 minutes, accounting for 10 points. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree of Chinese vocabulary and grammar.

(4) four hundred words, four minutes, 30 minutes. The aim is to examine the ability of examinees to read written materials in mandarin, with emphasis on pronunciation, phonological changes, intonation and so on.

(5) speaking, not less than 3 minutes, 30 minutes. The aim is to test the standard of mandarin Chinese in the absence of words.

How to distinguish nasal “l ” and laterals “n” in Mandarin?

In mandarin, consonant initials n is a pure nasal sound that passes through the nasal passages. Some people pronounce “n” sounds like l, when the soft palate is not enough, the tongue is tightly closed, and the blockage of the mouth is not completely closed, causing part of the airflow to leak along the side of the tongue. In the case of l, it has a nasal color, because the soft palate is not improved enough and the tongue is wide enough to cause residual air flow in the nasal cavity.

How to understand the “n” and “l” correct pronunciation it? May wish to try the following comparison approach:

Practice 1: prepare your pronunciation according to the pronunciation of “n“. Pinch your nostrils with your thumb and index finger and try to pronounce “n”. If you have a strong feeling of holding your breath, explain the correct position and method of your pronunciation, loosen your thumb and forefinger, and take the vowel “e” or “a” to read, and “n” will naturally sound. Vice versa.

Practice 2: in accordance with the requirements for the pronunciation of l prepared to pronunciation, put his hand over his mouth, and tries to pronounce “l” sound, if two gills summon up accompanied by the feeling of breath, that conform to the requirements of the pronunciation, remove the palm of your hand, take a vowel “e” or “a” read, “l” is the natural sound.

Why should mandarin pay attention to pronunciation?

Learning mandarin must take into account the three aspects of pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. Chinese differences highlight the surface now the voice of the phonetic systems between not only the major dialect area difference is big, is also within a region, a dialect often has obvious differences in pronunciation, and in the aspect of vocabulary and grammar differences in dialect and mandarin is limited. It can be said that speech difference is the main cause of communication difficulties. Therefore, the key to learning mandarin is to learn the standard pronunciation of Beijing pronunciation, and to learn pronunciation must focus on the training of the mouth and ears.

What are the rules of Chinese syllable spelling?

(Hanyu Pinyin Scheme) The spelling of Mandarin syllables has the following specific provisions:

1. The use of y and w

If the vowel of the I line and u line are the syllables, if there is no other vowel in the syllables except for I, then write y and w in front of the syllables. If there are other vowels in the syllables, then I will change the I to y, and u to w, and the final syllable of u will be written in the front of the syllables, and the two points will be omitted.

2. The use of acoustic symbols

The syllables that begin with a,o, and e are connected to the rest of the syllables, and if the syllables are confused, they can be separated by a sound barrier. Xi ‘an is written as xi ‘an, and it is written as ji ‘ang.

3. About iou, uei, uen province write

iou, uei, uen three vowels from syllables, according to y, w use rules, respectively, you, wei, wen. The three vowels and consonants consonance spell, the middle of the o, e omitted, omitted after the same pronunciation. Such as: qiou omitted. Written as qiu, huei omitted e written hui, cuen omitted e written cun.

4. The two points on ü are omitted

ü line vowels and consonants j, q, x phase fight, u on the two overemphasized, written u. Because mandarin j, q, x can not be spelled with u-line vowels, so omission of two points will not lead to misreading.

The characteristics of initials, finals and tones in Chinese

Syllable is the smallest unit of speech and the smallest unit of speech that people can naturally perceive. Mandarin syllables are generally composed of initials, vowels, and tones. In general, a Chinese character’s pronunciation is a syllable. Consists of 1 to 4 phonemes Initials are the beginning of a syllable Mandarin There are 22 initials, 21 of which are consonants, plus a zero initial (the zero initial is also an initial) Mandarin has 39 vowels, of which 23 are played by vowels and 16 are composed of vowel nasal consonants. Therefore, mandarin vowels consist of vowels or vowels as the main components.

What are the initials of Mandarin?

The initials of putonghua can be divided into seven categories according to their pronunciation :(1) there are three (b, p and m) in the bilabial. (2) there is one (f) on the teeth. (3) there are three (z, c, s) before the tip of the tongue; (4) there are four (d, t, n, l) in the tip of the tongue; (5) there are four (zh, ch, sh, r) after the tip of the tongue; (6) there are three (j, q, x) in front of the tongue; (7) there are three (g, k, h) in the back of the tongue.

The initials of putonghua can be divided into five categories according to the pronunciation method :(1) there are 6 (b, p, d, t, g and k) of the sound. (2) there are three (m, n, ng, only m and n initials) in the nasal sound; (f, h, x, sh, s, r); (4) there is one (l) on the side note; 6 (j, q, zh, ch, z, c).

Putonghua consonants in accordance with the pronunciation vocal cord vibration or not can be divided into voiceless, voiced two categories. Putonghua initials in addition to m, n, l, r is voiced, the rest are unvoiced.

Putonghua consonants in accordance with the sound intensity at the time of pronunciation, but also can be divided into two kinds of air-to-air and air-to-air sound: air-to-air and air-to-air are paired as b and p, d and t, g and k, z and c , Zh and ch, j and q.

What is “zero initials”?

Every Chinese syllables can be analyzed into two parts, the initials and finals every Chinese characters structure is composed of three parts of initials, finals and tones. Is commonly known as “zero initial syllables, which is not consonant initials of syllables,” Ann “(ā n), for example, the sound is not consonant at the beginning, but with the vowel at the beginning of a, this is” zero initial syllables.

How to classify the vowel of Putonghua?

Putonghua has 39 vowels, of which 23 are played by vowels, and 16 are composed of nasal-assisted phonological tails with vowels. According to the structure characteristics of the vowel, the finals are divided into three categories, namely: Single finals, complex vowels, nasal.

The first type is single rhymes, composed of pure vowel finals called single finals. Mandarin has 10 single finals, including surface unit rhyme mother tongue has seven, they are: a, o, e, e, I, u, u, special vowel finals have 3, they are: -i (former), – I (back), er.

The second category is complex vowels. Complex vowels are composed of compound vowel vowels. Compound vowels are composed of a string of vowel phonemes that are synthetically acoustically combined into a fixed group of phonetic matrices. The complex vowels can be divided into the former vowel, the second vowel and the middle vowel in accordance with the difference of the front and rear positions of the main vowel. The former vowel refers to the complex vowel in front of the main vowel, and there are 4 : Ai, ei, ao, ou. After the vowel refers to the main vowel after the complex vowels, there are five: ia, ie, ua, uo, ue. In the vowel refers to the main vowel vowels in the middle of the vowels There are 4: iao, iou, uai, uei

The third category is the nasal vowel nasal consonants n or ng as the end of the vowel called nasal vowel Mandarin nasal vowels a total of 16, divided into two kinds of one is the tongue nasal vocal n called vocal nasal vowels, there are 8: An, ian, uan, uan, en, in, uen, un; the other is with nasal consonant nasal nasal vowel, there are 8: ang, iang, uang, eng, ing, ueng, ong, iong.

What is the internal structure of the vowel?

Vowel internal structure can be divided into rhyme, rhyme abdomen, rhyme end three parts, such as rhyme iao, which i called rhyme, also known as voice; a called rhyme; o called rhyme. , Pronounced when the opening degree is louder, the loudest voice, but not every vowel has rhyme, rhyme abdomen, rhyme in these three parts.Only the rhyme and rhyme abdomen, such as vowels ia, uo üe, which i , U, u is the rhyme, a, o, e is the rhyme abdomen; some rhyme abdomen and rhyme, such as vowels ai, ei, ao, en, where a, e, a, e is rhyme abdomen, There are only rhyme in the mandarin vowel, there are only 3 rhyme in the mandarin vowel, only 4 in the rhyme, including vowel i, u (including ao, iao In the o) two consonants and vowels n, ng two.But the vowel in the vowels is indispensable.

How is the relationship between initials and consonants?

Initial consonants and consonants are two different concepts. The initial consonants are divided from the perspective of the analysis of syllable structure, while the consonants are proposed from the perspective of the analysis of phoneme properties. Compared with vowels, consonants are mainly characterized by airflow in the vocal organs Was somewhat obstructed or obstructed by strong airflow and part of the muscular tone involved in the airflow control of the vocal organs.The consonants were accentuated, but the consonants were not all initial consonants.As in the syllable “guāng” ng “, it is a consonant, but it sits behind the syllable, so it’s not the initial. And the” nán “syllable, before and after, has” n “which is the consonant at the beginning of the syllable Initials, at the end of the syllable are vowels, not initials.

Initials and vowels how the relationship?

Initials and vowels are not the same concept. Vowels are concerned with the location of phonemes in syllables, and vowels are in the nature of phonemes. The main features of vowels are that the airflow is unobstructed in the mouth and the airflow is weak , Vocal organ vibration balance, vocal cord vibration when normal pronunciation. Vowels can be used as vowel alone, such as: a, o, e, i, u, u, etc. These vowels are played by the compound vowels, en, in, ün, etc. These vowels are composed of vowel and nasal consonant ending. It can be seen from the above example that all vowels can be used as vowels or as an integral part of vowels, but vowels are not all vowels, The consonants n, ng can also be combined with the vowel vowels can be seen vowel range than the vowel.

What is the tone? What is the role of tone?

Tone refers to the rise and fall of a syllable when it is pronounced. The tone is mainly a phenomenon of pitch variation, which is also reflected in the change of pitch length. The pitch depends on how many times the body vibrates in a certain period of time, On the other hand, the lower the sound, the lower the sound is, and the tighter the sound is, the more times the sound vibrates within a certain period of time, the louder the sound is and the louder the vocal cords are, and the less the sound is vibrated for a certain period of time, The vocal cords can be adjusted at any time, resulting in a variety of pitch changes, resulting in different tones. In Chinese, a syllable is usually a Chinese character, so the tone is also called tone. Tone is an integral part of the syllable structure Part, which plays an important role in distinguishing, such as “subject matter” and “genre”, “practice” and “connection”, etc. The differences in the meanings of these terms mainly depend on the tone.

What is pinyin? How do you spell?

Pinyin is a process of spell syllables, it is according to the mandarin syllables constitute law of spell initials, finals rapid continuous merger and tone of voice and become a syllable. Pinyin main point is: “before (initials) light after a short note (final), connected to two sounds a touch.” to keep in mind when pinyin mandarin initials and finals of law:

There is a combination of the initials n and the zero initials and the exhalation, the pinion and the summary.

The initials f, g, k, h, zh, ch, r, z, c, s are only in the same breath.

The initials j, x, and q are only combined with the qi and pinion.

The initials b, p, m, d and t are spelled out in different summaries.

There is a relationship between the vocals and other initials that are removed from j, q and x.

It is only in conjunction with j, q, x, n, l and zero.

Pinyin when must pay attention to the correct pronunciation of initials, finals and tones note values. To read the initials, don’t read aloud shout pronunciation (teaching, behind the initials with different vowel sounds, the sound is called the call sounds); It is necessary to read the finals as a whole, not to break up the rhyme, rhyme, and rhyme. To see the tune, read the alignment.

Common spelling methods are the following:

Phonological two spelling – the vowel as a whole, used to match with the initials. Such as: h-ào → (Hao).

Initial consonant spelling – first find out the initial consonant pronunciation position, put the sound posture, and then sank vowels, spell syllables. Such as: spelling bā (Pakistan), first close your lips, hold your breath and put it well Send b tone posture, and then pronounced a, a syllable.

Three spelling read the law – is to syllables with voice-mediated analysis into sound, medium, rhyme three components, Pinyin read as a syllable. Such as: q-i-áng qiáng (strong)

Acoustic intercourse mother and vowel connection method – is the consonants and vowels (mother) together to form a phonetic component, followed by the vowel spell. Such as: gu-āng → guāng (light).

What is softly? Judge softly what is the law?

In a word or sentence, soft syllables often lose their original tone and are read as lighter and shorter tones, which are lighter and shorter, softly. Softly from the Yin Ping, Yang Ping, on the sound, the tone of the four changes from the tone as a tone of change phonetic phenomenon must be reflected in the words and sentences, therefore, the light syllable pronunciation can not exist independently.

Softly on some words have a different meaning of meaning .As brother xiōng di (referring to brother) – brother xiōng dì (referring to brother and brother)

Softly distinguish words from words and parts of speech such as: duì tou (enemy, opponent, noun) – to the head duì tóu (correct, appropriate, adjective)

In addition, there are some second syllable words are used to read the second syllable softly, and does not distinguish the word meaning or part of the role of the word, such as: air, consultation, husband.

Whether to read a softly tone words, generally have the following rules to follow:

⑴ Mood words “it, you, it, ah,” and so softly.As: OK, okay, go.

⑵ Auxiliary word “, 地, 得, 了, 过, 們” Read softly. 如: 大, 写 了, Affordable.

⑶ noun suffix “son, child, head,” and so softly. Such as: tables, cans, old man.

⑷ position words to read softly, such as: heaven, at home.

(5) The last syllable of the overlapping verb reads softly.

⑹ stacked words to read softly, such as: brother, doll, orangutan.

⑺ tendency to verb to read softly, such as: come, in the past, dry up.

Light tone syllable tone changes are not stable. Voice training should have been fixed in the grasp of the soft sound phenomenon, that is, the dictionary, the dictionary has income, not readable for softly soft tone syllable generally do not read softly.

How to make students learn Chinese characters easily?

Chinese characters are the treasures of Chinese culture, literacy is the foundation of reading and writing, and the teaching of literacy is the focus of Chinese teaching in the lower grade and the foundation of the foundation. However, literacy is a very boring task for students with low grades, and for teachers, it is also a hot task. So, how to improve the literacy of children? I think we can try it from the following aspects.

First, organize the game activities, improve literacy interest. Games are a form of love for children. Children like to imitate, like to play, like performance, combined with the younger age, can concentrate on listening time is short. Therefore, in teaching, we often change different, fresh and fun, loved by the “game” to stimulate their interest, mobilize the desire of students to learn abstract text symbols, so that students in the “game” to learn literacy, so boring literacy class Become a paradise for students to learn. For example, finding friends, driving trains, picking fruit and other activities is very interesting. However, when organizing a game to answer the questions, teachers should not neglect the “effectiveness” of literacy merely for “fun”.

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Second, teach the students methods to improve the quality of teaching. In the teaching of literacy, if the students will be tired of mechanical memory, as long as the mastery of literacy methods, experience the happiness of success in order to keep the interest of students to persevere. Therefore, in the teaching of literacy, in addition to stimulating the students ‘ interest in literacy, it is necessary to properly infiltrate some literacy knowledge and methods to develop students ‘ ability to read and write. “It is better to teach a man to fish than to give it to a fisherman.” Teach students how to read and help them develop their ability to read and write.

(1) part literacy. According to the rules of Chinese characters, the students can learn to read and write by “adding, subtracting and changing”, using the method of splitting and combining Chinese characters.

(2) graphic literacy. That is to use the visual image to help students to memorize a method of glyph.

(3) child literacy. Read children’s songs is accord with the age and psychological characteristics of junior students, teachers can be based on the characteristics of Chinese characters, some catchy rhyme formulas, let them read it over and over again, so that the students on the glyph visual image, so as to improve the accuracy of memory glyph.

(4) word puzzles. The puzzle is a kind of activity that students are extremely interested in, and it is a good way to use the word puzzles. In the work of guessing puzzles and puzzles, the students memorized the words, the glyphs, and the meanings. At the same time, I can train my thinking ability, language ability and expression ability. For example: “a bit of two eyes a stare – six” etc. By guessing, the students were impressed.

(5) The Story Literacy law. Elementary school students like to listen to stories, in the teaching of literacy, teachers should consciously adapt some abstract Chinese characters into lively and interesting stories, so that they can stimulate their imagination, but also to achieve accurate memory of difficult words target. There are many methods of literacy, such as: Each student establishes “the Literacy Growth Record Bag”, and sets up the display card in the class, carries on the literacy challenge. Teachers also need to build a large class of life, to expand literacy space, to guide students to explore the ability to read and improve literacy. For example: to guide students to watch TV literacy, shopping, street signs and so on, so that students understand things and the organic combination of literacy.

The teaching and training of literacy methods are of great value to students’ self-learning, learning ability and sustainable development. Traditional literacy teaching only pays attention to teaching students to know “this word”, without realizing it, so that students can learn to recognize “this kind of word” in the sense of “this word”. Pay attention to let the students learn a word “this”, acquisition method of this kind of word, and then grinding “gun” training opportunities for students, establish the platform of “practice”, can make it in repeated training “practice makes perfect”, which evolved into a kind of learning ability.

What textbooks do you need to learn Chinese?

In recent years, the “Chinese craze” has made more and more students learning Chinese, so what new features do they present to the requirements of teaching materials?

In the past ten years, with the continuous development of international Chinese teaching, Chinese textbooks have become more and more important. First, there is a clear trend of diversification. From the perspective of the audience, the audience of Chinese textbooks in the past is mainly foreign students, and these students are mainly adults.

Nowadays, the audience of textbooks has increased the number of Chinese students, Chinese fans, primary and secondary school students and preschool children. The expansion of audience range also puts forward new requirements for the compilation of Chinese textbooks. At present, the domestic Chinese textbooks on the market a lot of textbooks for foreign students, but for younger students teaching material is very few, teaching material diversity will become one of the development trend of the future.

Look from the use requirements, as the destination country for Chinese attaches great importance to the degree and the improvement of teachers, they put forward new requirements of Chinese teaching material content design, hoping to be combined with the actual usage, so there have been many textbooks written by foreign editor. In addition, professional and amateur students have their own needs for the use of textbooks.

Secondly, the localization trend is obvious. The United States, France and other developed countries have a solid foundation for the Chinese learning, a good second language study environment, as well as a wide range of Chinese group, they will according to the needs of their students and the actual usage of Chinese writing teaching materials with local characteristics. However, we should also pay attention to the principles and measures for the localization of teaching materials. First, all textbooks should be taught in standard and standard mandarin. In a broad sense, the world each country or region, with characteristics of dialects of Chinese are known as the “Chinese (Chinese)”, should be respected, but only “putonghua (Mandarin)” is the purpose of the standardization of compiling textbooks and learning language. Secondly, localization can be properly integrated into local culture, but mainly to introduce Chinese culture. These two points are accepted by any second language teaching material.

Third, the demand for quality is obvious. In the recent decade, with the development of Chinese “going global”, the number of domestic Chinese textbooks surged and were thousands, but only a very small number of textbooks were actually used by us. Teaching materials exported to other countries were even rarer. This also put forward requirements for the preparation of many new textbooks.

Fourth, the digital demand is obvious. This is one of the ways to enrich the teaching methods in the future, but in general, the development of digital textbooks is developing, which is still not quite high. In addition, digital development should be based on high-quality materials, otherwise there is no point.

What are the problems and difficulties in compiling Chinese textbooks?

I think the problem is mainly in two aspects:

First, there are thousands of Chinese teaching materials in China, and there is a tendency of shoddy construction, even low-level repetition in the same content. This not only affects the overall quality of Chinese teaching materials, but also wastes resources and pollutes the environment. Many of these materials are set aside by the editors themselves, causing great waste. There are many reasons for this problem, for example, if some editors are completely out of the picture, just because they don’t want to use other people’s textbooks, they make up a set. Some editors are lack of overall design thinking, writing textbooks and so on in the early stage of investigation and investigation.

Second, domestic editors have no understanding of the actual situation of Chinese teaching abroad. Chinese as a foreign language for a long time, the domestic academic circles more understanding of Chinese language teaching for foreign students, but for the overseas Chinese language teaching, especially the young teaching for primary and middle school students are familiar with degree is very low. In the past ten years, we have been sending Chinese teachers and volunteers overseas, and the improvement of overseas teaching experience will fill the gap in our teachers’ teaching methods in Chinese.

From the point of view of the textbook writer, what are the types of Chinese textbooks?

From a domestic point of view, many textbook compilers are themselves TCFL teachers who can form teams or write and publish textbooks in their personal names. In addition, many publishers organize their own team to write, edited by the publisher to play the author, so that it can well meet the actual needs of the publishing house, which is currently emerging on the market teaching methods, many foreign publishers have precedents. From abroad, many native writers design their own textbooks. They also work with Chinese editors to write textbooks that are both in accordance with the Chinese standard rules and applicable to the local situation. In addition, editors will also customize the textbook for localization.

What kind of teaching materials can become a quality textbook, it should have what characteristics?

First of all, as the editor, should always carry out the concept of Chinese educators. In the past, we only emphasized “teaching” and not paying attention to “learning”. Now, we also think that the Western “student-centered” is in line with the law of language teaching, at the same time, we also increased the “teacher-oriented”, which is extremely important to the dialectical view of Chinese teaching.

Secondly, the quality of our teaching materials depends on whether the editor can pay attention to the characteristics of Chinese and Chinese teaching in the textbook. For European and American students, their language is an indo-european language family, and they are related to each other, so they can be flexible and adaptable in the process of acquiring each other’s language. Law, by contrast, Chinese belongs to the sino-tibetan language, language and the indo-european exist bigger difference, in the process of acquisition should join the necessary grammar explanation and actual practice, emphasizes on the basis of the structure. Therefore, the editor should give full consideration to the characteristics of Chinese and Chinese teaching and write pertinently.

(practical Chinese textbook) was published by the commercial press in 1981. In this book, we incorporated the concept of “combination of structure and function” proposed by Chinese scholars at the time. “Structure” refers to the structure and form of language, and “function” refers to the actual use of language, and the combination of the two methods also conforms to the law of Chinese teaching. As soon as it was published, the practical Chinese textbook had a great impact both at home and abroad, and soon became the most widely used basic Chinese teaching material in the world. Mr Yao said in the United States is very like the life of vocabulary to join in the book, and in 1982 in the review of evaluation of the book “has the potential to be the future primary Chinese textbooks”, and later his prediction has become a reality.

After entering the 21st century, even though higher institutions such as Oxford are still in use (practical Chinese textbooks), its outdated content has become a problem that can not be ignored, hence the need to create new books. (New practical Chinese textbook) is not an adapted version of (practical Chinese textbook), but a brand-new teaching material. It further implements the “student-centered” teaching philosophy, and has a relatively large breakthrough in function and culture.

In the recent two years, with the development of the times and the emergence of a large number of new things and new words, we have revised (New Practical Chinese Textbook). We have added a lot about China’s social reality as well as Chinese culture such as express delivery and high-speed rail to the upgraded version of the new Practical Chinese Textbook (Version 3) that started publishing in 2015. These are all foreign students wanting to know To, but also to stimulate their interest in learning Chinese.

What opportunities will the One Belt And One Road initiative bring to the output of Chinese textbooks?

The “One Belt And One Road” initiative has increased the desire of countries along the route to learn Chinese, further promoting the overseas development of Chinese teaching and the export of Chinese textbooks abroad. On the other hand, our Chinese teaching and the compilation of Chinese teaching materials should also serve as the “people connect” and pave the way for the national “One Belt And One Road” strategy.