The purpose of learning Chinese pinyin

Chinese pinyin is an effective tool to help literacy and learning mandarin. The main purpose of learning Chinese pinyin, is to help the students to read and learn mandarin.

The teaching of literacy is three: read the word, recognize the glyph and understand the meaning of the word. The Chinese characters are not phonetic words, but they cannot be read.

Students learned pinyin, you can use this tool, oneself read and approved by the teacher can put the teaching focus on the analysis and the interpretation of meaning of glyph, causes the student to correct firmly recognize glyph, know the meaning, and have more time for students to practice writing, acquire the basic strokes of Chinese characters, Chinese character component radical, skeleton structure and words. In this way, students can not only read Chinese characters fast, but also have a strong grasp, which is conducive to improving the quality of literacy teaching.

Literacy is the foundation of reading and writing. If you learn Chinese Pinyin, you can use Hanyu Pinyin to solve the problem of Chinese pronunciation, improve your self-learning ability and improve the quality of reading teaching. At the same time, students can use Chinese pinyin instead of untrained Chinese characters to clearly express their own ideas. This is good for training and improving students’ writing skills.

Learning Mandarin is an important task of the language discipline. After teaching pupils to learn Chinese pinyin, they can constantly overcome the influence of dialects and learn Mandarin well.

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 1 ɑ o e

Learn three single vowels and four of them in this lesson.

Ɑ o e is a single vowel. When a single vowel pronunciation, the sound should be loud, the shape of the mouth can not be changed after the well. Now learn a single rhyme ɑ. When you read a book, like a doctor examining your throat to your child, you should make a big mouth wide and make a sound: ɑ ɑ ɑ.

Zhang mouth ɑ ɑ ɑ.

When reading o, like a big cock crowing, lips are round. o o o.

Round mouth o o o.

When reading e, the shape of the mouth is flat, as if smiling slightly. Please read with me: e e e.

Flat mouth e e e.

Mandarin has 4 different tones, high and low are very good. Each single vowel can read four tones, the first tone read high and flat, ā ō ē; the second tone read the sound from low to rise, á ó é; the third tone read, the sound first down and then Raise, ǎ ǒ ě; fourth tone read, the sound came down from height, à ò è. The symbol above the vowel is called tone symbol.

According to the shape of the four-character symbol, you can make jingle to help memorize, for example:

A loud flat and flat,

Second sound is like a hillside,

Three downhill and uphill,

Four sounds like downhill.

Now ask children to extend their right hand fingers, looking at the shape of the tone symbol, while reading, while gesturing, learning four o.

Ā á ǎ à

Ō ó ǒ ò

Ē é ě è

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 1 ɑ o e

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 2 i u ü

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 3 y w

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 4 b p m f

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 5 d t n l

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 6 g k h

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 7 j q x

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 8 z c s

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 9 zh ch sh r

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 10 fù xí

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 11 ɑi ei ui

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 12 ɑo ou iu

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 13 ie üe er

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 14 ɑn en in

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 15 un ün

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 16 ɑng eng ing ong

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 17 fù xí

Hanyu Pinyin Tone Learning Course Lesson 18 fù xí

What is complement

What is complement?

Complement is supplemented by the complement structure description of the results, degree, tendency, possibility, status, quantity, purpose and other ingredients. Complement and rhetorical complement and complement, between the description and the description of the relationship.

Chinese complement

Complement is the associated component of the verb or adjective, supplementing the result, degree, tendency, possibility, status, quantity, etc. of the narrative.

Complement and rhetorical complement and complement, between the description and the description of the relationship.

Composition

Complement mainly by the predicative words, number phrases and prepositional phrases to act as.

① predicative words as complement

Adjectives: Good low high fast cooked clear early

Verbs: write to listen to learn to take the push to see go listen

The main predicate phrase: glad to have tears flow out of his face almost white

Spoken guest phrase: watch TV to participate in the revolution

Abbreviations: Pain was fainted in the past can not sleep mess

Co-phrase: Tired and tired and exhausted

Form phrase: played very early Channeling higher than the day

Even the phrase: he was angry and tears ran out of shame and turned to run

Synonyms: Strangely unpredictable and overwhelming

Contrast Phrase: pain in general anxious ants on the wok-like

② number phrase as a complement

Read the three times set up a five-year trip took a look at the two lived in half a month

③ prepositional phrase as a complement

Born in Shanghai Drill collar written in the early 1920s began in the last century

Semantic type

Complement words can be used to describe the action, the result of the behavior, the state, the tendency, the quantity, the time, the place, the possibility, or the degree and state of the description of the trait.

Result Complement

The result complement indicates the result of the description.

The complement of the result is mainly served by adjectives, but also by a few monosyllable verbs.

The result of complement and rhetoric without “too.”

E.g:

Wrong to change the wrong pressure to raise low hold up cooked cried sweat done finished cleaning said clearly

Finish changed to understand learn to take away to wipe off killed hit crashed wake up

Complement result complement and the phrase combined more closely, during which you can not add other ingredients. The complement of the result can be followed by the verb “and” and “can”.

E.g:

Seize the moment to depress the standard to raise the price crying and swollen eyes kicked football washed clean clothes

Waking him erase traces of the wall to finish the essay took away the wages learned to surf the Internet

Trend complement

The complement of the signs indicates the direction of the movement of things, and is mainly composed of the verbs “come”, “go”, “out”, “up”, “down”, “back”, “up”, “come out”, “come back” “,” Go on “and so on. There is no “get” between the directional complement and the central language. E.g:

Come back into the flow into the run back to get used to put off the stickers to take off

Go out and run in and come out and squat down to get up and threw back to go on

In the format of the verbs “come” and “go” as the complement, the object can be placed after the complement phrase or between the complement phrases. For example, “send two magazines” can be changed to “send two magazines.” However, the object language means the place, only after “coming”, “going”, “entering”, “out”, “up”, “down”, “back” and “over” , “Go home”, “run home”, “walk into the back room.”

Sometimes verbs tend not to indicate the true tendency of the verb, but rather to extend the verb usage. E.g:

A long time to calm down.

He slowly became strong.

The verb “a” is generally added after the complement, in front of the object, for example:

He hurried into the office.

“The” can also appear before the complement, then the object no longer appears after the descriptor, for example:

The voices gathered past people in the corridor.

People around “boom” laugh.

May complement

Possible complements indicate how or why not.

There are two main possible complements:

Ⅰ Adding “or” not “between the quotation and the complement of the result indicates the result of the action, and the trend may or may not appear. E.g:

Wrote (not finished) End hear (do not) understand out (not) go

Solved (not) good to see (not clear)

Ⅱ “too” or “no” suffix after the phrase, indicating that the results may or may not be achieved. E.g:

To get (not to go) to eat (eat) Recognition (recognized)

Not to be disreputable

In addition, “liǎo” or “liǎo” can also be used as the complement after the quotation. E.g:

Gone (can not go away) can do (can not do) decided

The number of complements

The number of complements indicates the number of motivational actions.

The number of complements can be used as a quantity phrase of the table’s momentum, indicating the number of times an action has taken place. E.g:

Read the two said three times to hit three times

The number complements can also be taken by a quantity phrase that represents the amount of time, indicating the duration of the action. E.g:

Waited three months a month for a half-day melancholy sat for three minutes

Status complement

The state complement indicates the state as it appears due to the action or trait. The general affix between quotations and complements is “de”. E.g:

To fiercely become Yin Honghong Think too simple to speak vividly blue face

Say it out of breath excited to have words can not speak to tears have flowed out

State phrases can be omitted in certain contexts. This kind of sentence indicates that it contains either an unadulterated mean or a meaning that allows the interlocutor himself to understand it. E.g:

You anxious to see your hair chaos you look at her blush too

Sometimes the state complement without “get”, and use “a”, “get a.” E.g:

The next non-stop rains did not stop playing an impromptu bastard was restless

Grades complement

Level Complement indicates the degree or state reached.

There are two main types of words that serve as complement:

I indicates a very high degree of “very”, “very”, “through”, “panic”, “dead”, “bad”, “more”, “extreme.” E.g:

Very bad heat thoroughly Biede panicked to hate the music bad bad more comfortable

Commonly used are “incredible”, “death”, “death”, “no” and so on.

E.g:

Simple, extremely tired, tired, like it or not

Ⅱ represents a lesser degree of “some”, “a little.”

E.g:

Fewer faster Somewhat quicker

Grammatical complement has no negative form.

Time, place complement

Time, place complement mainly by prepositional phrases to act as.

E.g:

It happened in Beijing until yesterday when it was written in the early 1920s and was born in the 1960s

the difference

Complement, object and the semantic relationship between the different. Between the complement and the rhetoric is to supplement the relationship between the answer “how to” question; between the rhetoric and object is dominated by the relationship, answer the “what” problem.

For example, “English” in “Speak English” is the subject dominated by the verb “Shuo” and can answer the question of “what to say.” The relationship between the two is the subject-guest relationship. “Clearness” in “Clearness” is used to supplement the explanation The verb “to say”, you can answer the “how to say” issue, the relationship between the two is complementary.

When the phrase is an object, the structure particle “得” can not appear between the object and the object, and when the phrase is a complement, the structure particle “得” (which means the negative possible complement exception) must appear between the object and the complement. E.g:

He fell to the ground, pretending to fainted.

She almost fainted in excitement.

Phrases in discourse phrases can generally be asked questions in the form of affirmative negation, while phrases in the complement phrase can not be so questioned. E.g:

Speak English – → speak no English

Make it clear – → * Do not say it clearly

Sometimes the object can be moved to the preposition, the subject of the sentence or words. E.g:

I finished my clothes – → I washed my clothes

He wasted two hours – → He wasted two hours.

The location of complement is fixed, can only appear behind the quotation.

In addition, if the momentum after the phrase appears, usually the complement, such as “looked at the two eyes,” “read three times”; if after the quotation of the composition of the amount of material, usually the object, such as “bought three pairs”, ” Wrote half “.

Order

The order of complement and object, sometimes depends on the degree of combination of complement and predicate; Sometimes depending on the object, different objects require different locations. Complement and object order there are three cases:

Complement in front, object in the post

Complement in front of the object is the most common order of the two.

The result complement, may complement and predicate verbs are closely related, always on the front of the object. E.g:

She may slowly wipe the wounds in her heart at work. (Result complement + object)

It’s too far away here to see the words on the board. (May complement + object)

The number complement and the trend complement sometimes appear before the object. E.g:

He took the time to return home. (Number complement + object)

She walked into the room step by step with tears. (Trend complement + object)

The object is in front, complements later

The object is pronouns or finger nouns, the number of complements on the back of the object. E.g:

We waited for hours at the airport. (Object + number complement)

The complement of the number complements can also appear behind the object. E.g:

He has been to Beijing twice. (Object + number complement)

Trend complement sometimes appears after the object. E.g:

Too cold outside, you still go back to the house. (Object + trend complement)

The object appears in the middle of the complement

If the trending complement is two-syllable, the object sometimes appears in the middle of the complement.

E.g:

Go back up the hill to recover the cost to rush out two people to come up with a box of cigarettes

However, it should be noted that the directional complement separated by an object should be counted as a two-level complement. For example, “back” in “reclaiming costs” is the complement of the verb “收” and “come” is the “recovery cost” complement .

Complement and adverbial

Complements and adverbs can sometimes be interchanged. E.g:

Horse running in the vast prairie. – → Horse running in the vast prairie.

The meaning of “on the vast grasslands” as complement and adverbial respectively is slightly different. “Mercedes on the vast grasslands” focuses on showing where behavioral actions continue; “Running on vast meadows” places emphasis on places where action takes place. Another example:

I have not been to once. – → I have not been there before.

“Once” as a complement, said the momentum; as an adverbial exaggeration means that action did not happen.

Complement special exercises

(A) fill in the blanks with appropriate result complements

1、写_____了 2、踢_____了 3、打_____了 4、听_____了 5、学_____了 6、买_____了 7、擦_____了 8、洗_____了 9、吃_____了 10、贴_____邮票

(B) choose to fill in the blank

A 完 B 到 C 见 D 住 E 开

1、虽然今天学的生词很多,但我和快就全记_____了。

2、老大爷看_____远处走过来两个人。

3、门终于打_____了。

4、大家听_____这个消息,高兴的跳起来。

5、今天的工作太多了,看来今晚是做不_____了。

(C) conjunctions into sentences

1、了 收拾 屋子 干净

____________________

2、懂 她 了 听 我的 话

____________________

3、这本 你 看 杂志 了吗 完

____________________

4、住 我的话 他 站 了 听了 马上

____________________

5、借 那本书 你说的 了 着 吗

____________________

Related reading recommended

What is complement

What is adverbial

What is attributive

What is the object

What is predicate

What is the subject

What is an interjection

What is modal particle

What is conjunctions

What is a preposition

What is an adverb

What is an adjective

What is a verb

What is a quantifier

What is a numeral

What is a pronoun

What is a noun

What is adverbial

What is adverbial

Adverbial is an important modifier of sentence and another additional component of predicate. It is generally attached to the predicate center before the predicate, from the situation, time, place, mode, condition, object, affirmation, negation, scope and extent of the predicate Center word modification, restrictions. In different languages, “adverbial” has different roles. Chinese adverbial is an antecedent component of verbs or adjectives, which is used to modify or restrict verbs or adjectives, and to indicate the state, manner, time, place or extent of the action. Verbs, adjectives, adverbs or the entire sentence; German adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs or the entire sentence.

Modern adage

In modern Chinese, the adverbial adverbial adverbials and the first adverbial adverbial adverbial clauses lie in the subject and the predicate, which play the role of modification and limit the central part of the predicate. The adverbial adverbials are rare, but in terms of time, place and purpose, Prepositional structures do adverbs, the adage can be put in front of the subject, such as “in 1949, our country held a founding ceremony”, “In Beijing, we visited the Forbidden City” where “in 1949, in Beijing “Is the time and place of the table first adverbial.

Written signs of adverbials are “地”, such as “xiao ming pleasantly home”, of course, sometimes adverbial nor “Ground”, such as “they met in Shanghai,” which happily in Shanghai is an adverb

General adverbial sentence

He left already

See you in Beijing

Song Wang into the deep memories

Science finally defeated theocracy with great, unquenchable power

Sentence adverbial

In 1949, our country held a founding ceremony

In Hangzhou, we visited the beauty of the West Lake

Common forms of adverbials

Adverbs, adjectives often make adverbs.

2. Said the time, the premises of the nouns often adverbial, general adverbs do not adverbial verbs, in addition to aids rarely adverbial.

3. Prepositional structures often make adverbs

To put it plainly, is to modify the action of the word can also be understood as modified predicate words.

Multilingual order of arrangement:

The ordering of multilayered speech depends on the logical relations within the adverbial language and the need of representation.

A, the purpose or reason of the mediation phrase

B, table time or place

C, the tone of the table (adverb) or object (presenter phrase)

D, expression or procedure.

In addition, the mediation phrase that represents the object is generally immediately before the center.

Example: Many teachers in the lounge chatted passionately with him yesterday. [Correct order: Many teachers chatted with him (object) enthusiastically (in context) yesterday (time) in the restroom (place). ]

Language in classical Chinese

In classical Chinese, adverbials are classified into general adverbials and adverbials. In classical Chinese, adverbials tend to be postpositioned, and adverbial postings are one of several important inverted-flip patterns in classical Chinese

General adverbial sentence

Zhou Huan Wang Zuo Zhaowu Qu Wubu Gong (Sima Qian “Historical Records”)

Translated as Zhouheng Wang sent Chung-kuo to fight Quwu Wu Gong, including “make Ji Chung” as an adage

2. Adverbial post-sentence example

“However, the guards of the minister, relentless, faithful people, forget those who are outside, cover chasing the first emperor’s special encounter.” (Zhuge Liang “ex-teacher list”)

Translated as “However, the court guards escort officials do not slacken on the battlefield loyal ambitious soldiers who careless, presumably they remembered the first emperor’s special understanding of their grace”, which “inside”, “outside” is an adage Post

“General war in Hebei, fought in Henan.” “Banquet”

Translated as “the generals fought in Hebei, I fought in Henan”, in which “Hebei, Henan” is the adverbial post

“Covered by the palm” (Pu Songling “knitting”)

The positive sequence is “cover with palm” is translated as “cover with the palm (crickets)”, “to palm” is the adverbial post

Green, taken from the blue, and blue in the blue; ice, water, and cold water (Xunzi “Encouraging Learning”)

Translated as “Indigo This dye is extracted from the bluegrass, however, more than the color of bluegrass; ice is made of cold water condensation, but more cold than water,” which “in the blue, in the water “For the typical adverbial post

Each false by the collection of books, hand recording (Song lian “send Dongyang Ma sequence”)

Translated as “people often borrow books, hand copied”, which “in the collection of books” is adverbial post

In modern Chinese, adverbials often appear in post-modern forms. Nowadays modern adverbs use only modifiers and restrictive predicates behind the predicates as complement rather than adverbials. Therefore, adverbials are only found in ancient times.

Adverbial exercises

(A) fill in the appropriate adverb

1、客人们__________来了。

2、我们__________去看电影吧。

3、他__________看着我,什么也不说。

4、冬天__________来了。

5、客人们__________在喝茶。

(B) choose the appropriate adverbial fill in the blank

1、他__________工作了一天。(跟大家一起/以前)

2、我__________不认识他,这次__________认识的。(原先/一直,以后/才)

3、毕业几十年了,他__________没有忘记母校。(在学校/一直)

4、他__________很负责。(对工作/打电话)

5、今天的生词很有意思,我__________就记住了。(话了很长时间/一下子)

(C) conjunctions into sentences

1、去年 来 他 常常 我这里

____________________

2、走过去 身边 从 他们 我 慢慢地

____________________

3、对 健康 有 运动 好处

____________________

4、从来 她 去 北京 过 没有

____________________

5、洗脸 经常 用 香皂 她

____________________

(D) determine the right or wrong statement

1、从早上八点到十二点我们每天上课。

____________________

2、也他明天要去爬山。

____________________

3、他发脾气常常一些小事。

____________________

4、多地听,多地说,一定能学好外语。

____________________

5、我这里有只一个苹果了。

____________________

Related reading recommended

What is complement

What is adverbial

What is attributive

What is the object

What is predicate

What is the subject

What is an interjection

What is modal particle

What is conjunctions

What is a preposition

What is an adverb

What is an adjective

What is a verb

What is a quantifier

What is a numeral

What is a pronoun

What is a noun

What is attributive

What is attributive

In sentences, attributives are used to modify subjects and objects, often by adjectives, quantifiers, nouns, pronouns.

Chinese attributive

1. In Chinese, the attributive often by adjectives, quantifiers, nouns, pronouns as. Other words or phrases may also be used. Attributives are used to modify subjects and objects.

Example: (brackets for the attributive)

For example: (warm) sunshine (calm) of the lake. (Adjectives as attributives)

I will tell you a story. (Quantifiers as attributives)

(Today) newspaper read it? (Noun as attributive)

(Our) history has (own) characteristics. (Pronouns as attributives)

A few points:

A In a sentence, the prefix of a structure is used to modify a word or phrase that restricts a noun is an attributive. In other words, the structural “particle” is an attributive mark.

For example: (Hainan) (noun as attribute) rapid industrial development.

B sometimes can not take attributive “.”

For example: here (a) (quantitative terms attributive) house.

C noun sometimes attributive more than one.

For example, the (language) (noun as attributive) teacher of (two) (quantifier attributive) in our school (thirty years old) (verb phrase attributive) becomes a delegate.

D attributive position in front of the subject, and the object in front of.

For example: (pronoun as attribute) (Xiao Ming) father is (a) (quantifiers as attributive) teacher.

(Under the dark) of the black wing (bearing phrase as attributive)

Multi-level attributive edit

Multi-level attributives are generally arranged in accordance with the logical relationship, the closer the central term attributive closer to the central language

First, the multi-layer attributive order from near to far is generally:

Table relations (who’s)

Said time, premises (when, where)

Table refers to or number (how much)

Table verb words, the main predicate (what)

Table adjectives (what kind of)

Table nature, category or scope (what)

Second, the arrangement of multi-level attributive also follow the following rules:

1, with “the” attributive generally on “without” “attributive. For example, can only say “blue woolen coat”, can not say “woolen blue coat.” Among them, the verb without “directly” attributive modifier language, after the adjectives and nouns, such as: “a sumptuous roasted lamb,” “new heating equipment.”

2, the complex structure of the attributive generally placed before the simple structure of the attributive. For example, “digital recording equipment for teaching just imported from abroad” generally can not be described as “a teaching digital recording device just imported from abroad.”

This is the law followed from two perspectives, basically following the law first and then following the law two.

Attributive special exercises

(A) draw the following sentence attributive

例如:上海是一座发展很快的大城市

1、这件衣服太大了

____________________

2、一个穿黄色裙子的姑娘走过来。

____________________

3、这所旧房子已经没人住了。

____________________

4、这是最有用的方法。

____________________

5、世界各地有无数的旅游景点。

____________________

(B) to add the following center language appropriate attributive

______祖国 ______决定 ______老师 ______小船 ______生活 ______同学 ______天气 ______晚会 ______汽车 ______照片

(C) to determine the right and wrong and correct

1、他是我来中国后第一位认识的中国朋友。

______________________________

2、到中国后,我看了中国很多电影。

______________________________

3、我学习的成绩不太好。

______________________________

4、我想问几个关于中国大学生的问题。

______________________________

5、上海是中国大的第一城市。

______________________________

(D) conjunctions into sentences

1、毛 一件 衣 新 这是

______________________________

2、汉语 两位 学校的 我们 老师 也参加了比赛 优秀

______________________________

3、有意思 看的 昨天 电影 晚上 那部 很

______________________________

4、有 名 古代 画 一幅 我家

______________________________

5、是 教授 他 最有名的 我校

______________________________

Related reading recommended

What is complement

What is adverbial

What is attributive

What is the object

What is predicate

What is the subject

What is an interjection

What is modal particle

What is conjunctions

What is a preposition

What is an adverb

What is an adjective

What is a verb

What is a quantifier

What is a numeral

What is a pronoun

What is a noun

What is the object

What is the object

Object, also known as the word, refers to the recipient of an action (verb). Object is divided into direct object and indirect object two categories, of which the direct object refers to the direct action of the object, indirect objects that indirect action, but affected by the action object. In general, there must be at least one object behind the transitive verb, while the object is usually a direct object, while some transitive verbs require two objects, then the two objects are usually one direct object and the other indirect object.

modern Chinese

The object is often the subject of action and is always behind the verb.

Can be nouns, pronouns, nouns, nominal adjectives, infinitives, nouns, object clause and so on.

1, nominal object. E.g:

I give you two roses, give you purple, and give her pink.

2, predicate sex object. E.g:

The most effective defense is offensive. (Verb as object)

Who says women are not as good as men?

Morning bed, we found the wind stopped, the waves are quiet. (Complex sentence form as object)

Object-specific exercises

(A) fill in the appropriate object

1.他总是问我____________。

2.最近我在学____________。

3.妈妈忙的时候,是我打扫____________。

4.放暑假的时候,我打算____________。

5.这个学期,小兰参加了____________。

(B) conjunctions into sentences

1.买了 铅笔 一支 商店 在我

________________________

2.晚上 电影票 我 的 买 是

________________________

3.什么 在 讨论 你们

________________________

4.的 一百多元 卖了 我 旧自行车

________________________

5.告诉 一个 刚才 消息 小李 我 好

________________________

(C) statement to determine the correct

1.哥哥9月份去上海旅行。

________________________

2.我想休息宿舍。

________________________

3.妈妈送一支笔我。

________________________

4.张老师在买。

________________________

5.她毕业中国的大学了。

________________________

Related reading recommended

What is complement

What is adverbial

What is attributive

What is the object

What is predicate

What is the subject

What is an interjection

What is modal particle

What is conjunctions

What is a preposition

What is an adverb

What is an adjective

What is a verb

What is a quantifier

What is a numeral

What is a pronoun

What is a noun

What is predicate

What is predicate

The concept of predicate in Chinese grammar is to show how the subject is, what kind of nature it is in, what state it is in, and so on. It is used to describe the subject, and the common verbs, verb phrases, adjectives, adjective phrases, nouns, Predication phrases serve as predicates.

E.g:

They are rehearsing the show. (Rehearsal, verb predicate)

The fish swim in the river. (Swimming, verb predicate)

The trees in the mountains are green again. (Green, adjective predicate)

Dawns Here Are Quiet. (Quiet, adjective phrase predicate)

The weather outside is very hot, do not stroke. (Hot, adjective predicate)

In traditional Chinese grammar, predicates are one of the two main parts of a sentence. The other is the subject, modified by predicates. Predicates provide information about the subject, such as what the subject did or did.

There is a saying that a sentence can have the subject, predicate, object, attribute, adverb, complement, and other languages. Another argument is that all but the subject and its modified parts are predicates. According to the former statement, “our family of two people.” The subject is “our family”, the object is “two people”, predicate “yes” is omitted. According to the latter argument, the subject of “our family of two people.” The subject is “our family”, the predicate includes the omission of the phrase “有” and the object of “two persons.”

According to the former argument, a sentence can be divided according to its structure: narrative sentences, sentenceless sentences, sentence sentences, sentences and so on.

Narrative sentences: subject + predicate, or subject + predicate + object

Such as: “I edit Baidu Encyclopedia,” or “I’m editing.”

Sentences: subject + predicate + object

Such as: “I have an account of Baidu Encyclopedia.”

Statement statement (also called descriptive sentence): subject + table language

Such as: “Baidu encyclopedia content is very comprehensive.”

Judgment sentence: subject + broken language

Such as: “Baidu Encyclopedia is an Internet application software.”

Action direction

In Chinese, because the relationship between the subject and the predicate is the subject and interpretation, this loose relationship often leads to the direction of the predicate is not clear. Seemingly the same sentence, the direction of action can be different; seemingly the opposite sentence, the action can only be the same side. E.g:

He changed my mind.

He changed his face.

In the first sentence, the direction of the action is spontaneous to the object. However, in the second sentence was he himself actively changing his face, or was his face changed for other reasons (possibly because of anger, panic). In the first case, the action is spontaneous and in the second case it is not.

Therefore, in determining the direction of the predicate at the same time must also be based on the subject direction and context to judge, for example:

I borrow (borrow) you (your) a book.

I borrowed (lent) a book from you (you).

You (borrow) give me a book.

The three sentences state the same thing.

And “I borrowed you a book.” Can be understood as “I lent” or “I borrowed”, so a similar sentence to determine the direction of the action depends on contextual prompts to judge.

Category

Verb predicate

Phrases centered on verbs or verbs are the most common predicates.

He asked me to go to Disney.

Mice love rice.

Adjective predicate

In Chinese, adjectives and verbs are grammatically similar, and many grammarians classify them as predicates. Adjectives or phrases in Chinese can act as predicates directly without the need to add additional words.

(Han) She is beautiful.

Noun predicate

Nouns or nominal phrases can also serve as predicates.

Today is thursday.

Lord predicate

A complete predicate structure can also serve as a predicate. There are several situations in this type of sentence, subject, and predicate:

The subject indicates the time and place of the subject predicate.

I will come back tomorrow.

Subjects represent subjects in predicate predicates.

I’ve read this book long ago.

Subject acceptor predicate description.

This person is good at heart. (Describe the nature of the subject as a predicate.)

I hold my child in one hand and my mother in one hand. (The subject and predicate states the subject’s actions and events.)

Predicate special exercises

(A) draw the predicate in the following sentence

例如:汽车旁边站着一个二十多岁的小伙子

谓语:站着

1.最近他开了一家新公司。

谓语__________

2.他把红包给了我。

谓语__________

3.院子里的人很多。

谓语__________

4.我二十了,你呢?

谓语__________

5.小明学习很努力。

谓语__________

(B) choose to fill in the blank

A 送 B 是 C 长 D 黑 E 大眼睛,双眼皮

1.不同意的________少数几个人。

2.刚才是个小姑娘来________的花。

3.我的妹妹________,非常漂亮。

4.那边的山上________满了花儿。

5.天已经________了。

(C) fill in the appropriate predicate

1.他一定________。

2.八月的香山________。

3.今天的作业________。

4.晚上我再________。

5.老板!啤酒________?

(Four) conjunctions into sentences

1.了 婚礼 舞会 开始

________________

2.三十年 到 了毕业 现在 从

________________

3.卖完 火车票 了 已经

________________

4.为了 你 好 他 是

________________

5.已经 不少 我们 学了 汉字

________________

Related reading recommended

What is complement

What is adverbial

What is attributive

What is the object

What is predicate

What is the subject

What is an interjection

What is modal particle

What is conjunctions

What is a preposition

What is an adverb

What is an adjective

What is a verb

What is a quantifier

What is a numeral

What is a pronoun

What is a noun

What is the subject

What is the subject

The subject is the subject that performs the action or action of the sentence. For example, “I” in “I write” is the subject, and it makes the “write” action. “Writing” is the predicate used to modify the subject, and “word” is the subject of the action of accepting the predicate “write.” It is therefore called the object, and some grammatical books are also called “objects” or “receptors” . The subject is a statement in the sentence and has similarities with English grammar. Often used by nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases. Adjectives, verbs, predicate phrases, and subject-predicate phrases may also act as subjects. When the sentence component is divided, the subject symbol is a double horizontal line.

Chinese subject

The subject is a statement in the sentence and has similarities with English grammar. Often used by nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases. Adjectives, verbs, predicate phrases, and subject-predicate phrases may also act as subjects. When the sentence component is divided, the subject symbol is a double horizontal line.

For example

Melting snow, grass green, spring is coming. (Snow, grass, spring, noun as the subject)

One meter is equal to one hundred centimeters. (One meter, nouns as subject)

They finally boarded the mountain. (They, pronoun as the subject)

Everyone’s learning method is different. (Learning method, noun phrase as subject)

Peace and development are two major themes in today’s world. (Peace and development, side phrases as subject)

Eat grass, squeeze out the milk. (Eat, squeeze, verb phrase as subject)

Learning to drive is not easy. (Learn to drive, moving object phrase as the subject)

More people are dangerous. (More people, subject and phrase as the subject)

Beautiful music is intoxicating. (Music, as the subject)

The type of subject

Subject matter: subject in the sentence is the action of the issuer.

For example: We must actively participate in school activities. (“Everyone” is the subject)

Subject matter: the subject in the sentence is the action of the actress.

For example: school newspaper has not been printed. (“School newspaper” is the subject)

Neutral subject (subjects subject): the subject in the sentence is neither an affair nor an affair, but the description, description, judgment of the object. Also called “relationship subject.”

For example: Our future is very good. (“Future” is the subject of the object being described)

Xiao Ming is sixteen years old. (“Xiao Ming” is the subject, is the object of explanation)

Beijing is the heart of the motherland. (“Beijing” is the subject, is the object of judgment)

The subject of Chinese is very different from that of Indo-European. Because of the lack of formal marking in Chinese, the correspondence between different parts of speech and the composition of sentences is complicated. Such issues have always been controversial, can be understood as both the word, can also be understood as the correspondence between the word and the sentence component.

According to the linguist Chu Te-hee, verbs and adjectives that are interpreted as nominalized in the subject position are actually far-fetched, as a result of copying the Indo-European grammar. The verbs and adjectives can actually be the subject.

E.g:

Evasion can not solve the problem. (Escape is a verb)

Strong is a valuable quality. (Strong is an adjective)

Chinese subject special exercises

(A) choose to fill in the blank

A 前边 B 玻璃 C 太阳 D 你的回答 E 自己的事

1.______________________来了一个人。

2.______________________没有解决我们的问题。

3.______________________是谁打破的?

4.______________________应该自己做。

5.______________________慢慢地升起来了。

(B) fill in the appropriate subject

1.______________________对身体有好处。

2.______________________已经做好了。

3.______________________天气不太好。

4.______________________对我的帮助很大。

5.______________________到处是小河。

(C) conjunctions into sentences

1.上个星期 了 游泳 他们

______________________

2.他 看 中国电影 喜欢

______________________

3.汉语 教 谁 你们

______________________

4.五块钱 一 西红柿 公斤

______________________

5.已经 飞机票 上了 买

______________________

Related reading recommended

What is complement

What is adverbial

What is attributive

What is the object

What is predicate

What is the subject

What is an interjection

What is modal particle

What is conjunctions

What is a preposition

What is an adverb

What is an adjective

What is a verb

What is a quantifier

What is a numeral

What is a pronoun

What is a noun

What is an interjection

What is an interjection?

Interjection is a Chinese vocabulary, grammar terminology. Sigh, call, answer the word. Our common interlocutions are haha, alas, ah, huh, meh, ohh, cough, oh, hey, uh, hey and so on.

Role

Interjection can be expressed in surprise, praise, complain, sigh and other feelings, call, response role. Interjection is very independent, it is not combined with other words, it does not act as a sentence component, can become a separate sentence, either in front of the sentence or behind, there are some pause before and after it. E.g:

Oh, you go to school You try it, huh!

The use of interjection is mainly:

① Into a sentence, constitute non-predicate sentence. Such as: “Hey! What are you doing?”

② as an insert language. Such as: “look back, oh, the mountains of the leaves.” Interjections sometimes used for other words, as a sentence component. Such as “mouth open, as if shouting ‘ah'” (use as a noun, as an object), “He hastily ‘ah’ s cry” (use as a verb, as the central term of the predicate), ” ‘Voice’ (to use as an onomatopoeia, attributive), “People laugh and laugh” (use as an adjective, adverbial), “he hurt straight out” (use as an onomatopoeia, complement). Interjections sometimes used in conjunction, said the sigh to strengthen or repeatedly the call, answer. Such as: “hey, how to engage, oh, oh, look, all mess.”

Sometimes the same interjection to read different tones, they said different meaning.

For example: ah (ā)! Really good wow! (Table praise)

Ah (á)? So fast? (Table surprised or do not know)

Do not cry, ah (á)! (Table questioning)

Ah (ǎ)! So ah! (Table special surprise or wake up)

Category

Interjection from the functional point of view can be divided into the following categories:

① expressed surprise, praise the interjection

Expressed surprise in Chinese, praise the main interjections are:

Ah (Yin Ping) 咦 (Yang Ping) Hey (Yin Ping) Hi (Yin Ping) 嚯 (Yin Ping)

Scared (he Yin Ping) vomit (Yin Ping) vomit (Yang Ping, “so”) yo (Yin Ping)

E.g:

咦? Still want me to teach you?

Hey! What are you afraid of? He saw the world more!

Yo! Pretty awesome!

嚯, your kid is really OK!

Vomit, it is you. Sorry to keep you waiting.

② said joy, ironic interjection are: ha ha hehe hehe

E.g:

Haha, I finally learned to drive it!

Oh, he can go to college?

③ expressed sadness, regretful interjection are: alas (go to voice) hey hey (sound)

E.g:

Alas, how good it would be to listen to you then!

Alas, sick for two months, the work was delayed.

Oh, I really do not know that he is for this thing!

Hey, you can be so confused wow!

④ said anger, despise the main interjection; 呸 啐 hum (he went to sound)

E.g:

呸! You nonsense!

Well, you actually believe him?

啐, he came to this point completely blame yourself!

⑤ expressed dissatisfaction, dissent objections are mainly;

Alas (on the sound) Hi (go to [FS: PAGE] sound) 嚯 (go sound) scared (he sings)

E.g:

Alas, I still disagree with his opinion!

Scared, how can you speak like this?

⑥ that wake up, clear interjection are: vomit (sound)

He snorted (Rhetoric) came from outside the door, feed the sound. (attribute)

He is awesome. He ached so badly. (complement)

Word shape

Interjections are special “shaped words” are “mouth” as the righteous character [4], phonetic notation, such as ah, oh, uh,yi and so on. Because of the annotation nature of interjection, there exists the problem of “one word and one tone”. For example, the interjection “Oh” and “Oh” have the same meaning and different meanings. This belongs to the alien category.

Some interjection writing lack of norms, the same interjection often have different forms of writing, easy to cause confusion, should try to use common wording, such as “Ah, Ah, Oh, 嗄” read a tone, now generally writing “ah “.

Related reading recommended

What is complement

What is adverbial

What is attributive

What is the object

What is predicate

What is the subject

What is an interjection

What is modal particle

What is conjunctions

What is a preposition

What is an adverb

What is an adjective

What is a verb

What is a quantifier

What is a numeral

What is a pronoun

What is a noun

What is modal particle

What is modal particle

Auxiliary words, also known as language Auxiliary words. Grammatical terms refer to a part of speech that belongs to function words attached to other words, phrases, or sentences as an aid. Usually used in the sentence before, during, after, that a variety of tone; or for the middle of the sentence, said the structural relationship. Must be attached to the back or front of other words, all attached to the read softly, before the attached does not read softly.

Basic Information

Auxiliary words, also known as auxiliary language, is one of the grammatical terms, refers to a kind of special words with poor independence, no meaning.

Detailed explanation

Auxiliaries are often attached to other words, phrases, or sentences in order to highlight the sentence structure or a certain function. If the auxiliary word is located in the front, middle and back of the sentence, usually indicates a certain tone; if it is used in the middle of a sentence or between words, it indicates that some kind of structural relationship is suggested.

Auxiliaries in Chinese, usually divided into structural auxiliary words, tense auxiliary words and modal particles three. Verb affixes commonly used in vernacular include: the, the, the, right, ah, etc .; classical Chinese are: there, who, who, too, and so on.

In Japanese, auxiliary words are used for body language, quasi-body language and modalization of language to express their relationship of personality, or to add meaning to the prepositional vocabulary, living in a very important position. There is no real significance in itself, can not be used alone, there is no inflectional. Each category on the different opinions.

Category

Auxiliaries are divided into modal particle, structural particle and temporal particle.

Modal particle

Mood particle (modal particle) is usually located in the sentence or at the end of the sentence, that describes the tone (state) or state. When expressing complex tone, you can use multiple tone words to express, such as “ah, you are so smart!” The same modal particles sometimes have different meanings depending on the context and the context. For example, “You are amazing!” (Praise), “You are awesome!” (Criticism, Irony). Therefore, the modal particle has no real meaning and can not be used alone.

Common tone words have the following categories: question tone, imperative tone, sentimental tone, affirmative tone and pause tone.

The questioning tone: “Is it, right?”, Or “in the classical Chinese”, “who, peace, zai, and 欤, evil,” and so on. In some cases, when the “ah” read the rise, but also questioned tone. Different interrogatives indicate different degrees of doubt. Procedures for doubts about “it” and “right” are smaller than “yes”, and usually indicate (guess the answer) for comments.

Imperative tone: “Bar, strike, ah, ah, you” or the classical “carry on, Yan, Zai” and so on, that order, request, advice, supervision and other tone, such as: .

Exclamation tone: “ah, ah, wow, where” or in classical Chinese “Ye Hao, Yan, Yan, Zai, and,” said the output subjective feelings. Note that exclamatory words and interjections are different, interjections are usually used at the beginning of a sentence, and exclamatory words are generally used at the end of a sentence and can not be used independently.

Positive tone: “Well, well, it, you, nothing, but” or “in the classical”, carry on, almost, however, Yan, ear, and cloud, Seoul. Some affirmative modal words, such as “Bale”, “only”, sometimes with subjective feelings. Note that the affirmative modal particle is different from the structural particle. If the structural particle is removed, it will affect the structure of the sentence, while the modal particle is not harmful.

Stomp tone: “ah, right, what?” Or in the classical “, carry, care, Yan, Xi,” generally used in the sentence, a pause, emphasizing the function of prominent words in front.

Tense particles

Temporal auxiliary word is also called dynamic auxiliary word, usually connected with verb or adjective, the state of action or change, which can be used with adverbs of time. Vernacular tense auxiliary words in the vernacular have “had, had, had”, there is “carry on” in classical Chinese. However, “carry on” the word usually have the function of modal particles.

Structural particle

Structural particle attached to the word, phrase in front of or behind, to indicate the structural relationship of the sentence. Common structural aids have the prefix “The,and so,” as well as the accompanying “, Ground, Got it, like” and so on. In classical Chinese, there are “those, those who, then, husband, so, almost, Yan, and so on, and so on.

In Chinese, auxiliary words and conjunctions, prepositions and interjections belong to function words and can not express concepts, but they can indicate grammatical structures or various tones. No sense in the sentence, there is no uniform grammar function, can not be used alone, is the worst word of independence. Usually in vernacular, the particle is read softly.

The auxiliary words in Chinese are divided into three kinds: modal particle, structural particle and temporal particle, while modal particle is also called “modal particle”. Others think “modal particle” should be an independent word class.

Prefix structure of the particle, sometimes not easy to understand, for example: “This matter has long been known to everyone.” The “place” here means the affiliation between “everyone” and “know”.

There was no strict distinction between the three words of “Ground, Got it” before the May 4th Movement and there were often mixed phenomena in the old literary works. After the May Fourth Movement, they are usually used in sequence as an indication of “attributive, adverbial, complement”. As follows:

1. The word “” is used to indicate that the preceding word or phrase is an attributive. The most common usage is followed by adjectives used to modify the following nouns, pronouns, such as: “beautiful scenery”; can also be followed by nouns or pronouns, to express their affiliation, such as: “My book “; Or after joining the real words other than adverbs, to form a phrase with the noun function, and use it as a subject or object in a sentence. Such as: “We want peace and stability.”

2. The word “get” is usually used after the verb and the adjective followed by the complement to indicate the possibility (eg “She goes, I’ll go.” “I’ll take it.”) Degree (eg: “You’re fine.”). Some dictionaries will classify this usage as a preposition.

3. The word “Ground” is usually used after the adverb, and the word or phrase preceding the mark is adverbial and is often mistaken for the word “.”

The word “Zhi” is a structural particle, the usage is:

1. Same as vernacular “,” such as “Master’s article.”

2. Nonsense, only the object in the table in advance, such as “Love of Love, with those who give”, “Love of Lotus” means “Love Lotus.”

When the word “is” is used as a structural particle, it is also a table object, such as “you are the only one asking” or “asking only you.”

Modal particle special exercises

(A) choose the correct answer

1.今天你去商店____?

A 吗 B 吧 C 呢 D 的 E 了

2.看你们长得这么像,这是你的弟弟____?

A 吗 B 吧 C 呢 D 的 E 了

3.我的书包在这儿,你的____?

A 吗 B 吧 C 呢 D 的 E 了

4.这是一个多么美丽的地方____?

A 吗 B 吧 C 呢 D 的 E 了

5.这件事就这么决定____?

A 吗 B 吧 C 呢 D 的 E 了

(B) Please fill in the following sentences with the appropriate tone of the word

1.你对这件事是同意____,还是反对?

2.这件衣服看上去挺不错的,是刚买的____?

3.小李,这是学校的图书馆____?

4.我是同意i的意见____。

5.(打电话)小王,你好,张先生____?

(C) with the formulation of words to rewrite the sentence

1.这件衣服是不是新买的?(吗)

________________________

2.他这次大概没考好。(吧)

________________________

3.我已经吃过饭了,你吃过饭了吗?(呢)

________________________

4.他昨天就来北京了。(的)

________________________

5.这儿的风景太美了。(呀)

________________________

(D) correct the wrong statement

1.这么晚回来,你去哪儿去了吗?

________________________

2.我喜欢红颜色,你吗?

________________________

3.你是中国人呢?

________________________

4.你怎么不说话,说吗?

________________________

5.这儿的空气可好吧!

________________________

(E) use the “you”, “it”, “bar” to complete the following dialogue

1.

A:我的作业已经写完了,_____________________?

B:我的还没有写完。

2.

A:我觉得我们班一定能赢。

B:_____________________。

C:输了我请你吃饭。

3.

A:小李,你觉得这次考试谁能靠的最好?

B:_____________________。

4.

A:_____________________?我找了你半天了都没有找到。

B:在图书馆。

5.我找李红,_____________________?

A:B:对不起,她不在。

Related reading recommended

What is complement

What is adverbial

What is attributive

What is the object

What is predicate

What is the subject

What is an interjection

What is modal particle

What is conjunctions

What is a preposition

What is an adverb

What is an adjective

What is a verb

What is a quantifier

What is a numeral

What is a pronoun

What is a noun