The characteristics of initials, finals and tones in Chinese

Syllable is the smallest unit of speech and the smallest unit of speech that people can naturally perceive. Mandarin syllables are generally composed of initials, vowels, and tones. In general, a Chinese character’s pronunciation is a syllable. Consists of 1 to 4 phonemes Initials are the beginning of a syllable Mandarin There are 22 initials, 21 of which are consonants, plus a zero initial (the zero initial is also an initial) Mandarin has 39 vowels, of which 23 are played by vowels and 16 are composed of vowel nasal consonants. Therefore, mandarin vowels consist of vowels or vowels as the main components.

What are the initials of Mandarin?

The initials of putonghua can be divided into seven categories according to their pronunciation :(1) there are three (b, p and m) in the bilabial. (2) there is one (f) on the teeth. (3) there are three (z, c, s) before the tip of the tongue; (4) there are four (d, t, n, l) in the tip of the tongue; (5) there are four (zh, ch, sh, r) after the tip of the tongue; (6) there are three (j, q, x) in front of the tongue; (7) there are three (g, k, h) in the back of the tongue.

The initials of putonghua can be divided into five categories according to the pronunciation method :(1) there are 6 (b, p, d, t, g and k) of the sound. (2) there are three (m, n, ng, only m and n initials) in the nasal sound; (f, h, x, sh, s, r); (4) there is one (l) on the side note; 6 (j, q, zh, ch, z, c).

Putonghua consonants in accordance with the pronunciation vocal cord vibration or not can be divided into voiceless, voiced two categories. Putonghua initials in addition to m, n, l, r is voiced, the rest are unvoiced.

Putonghua consonants in accordance with the sound intensity at the time of pronunciation, but also can be divided into two kinds of air-to-air and air-to-air sound: air-to-air and air-to-air are paired as b and p, d and t, g and k, z and c , Zh and ch, j and q.

What is “zero initials”?

Every Chinese syllables can be analyzed into two parts, the initials and finals every Chinese characters structure is composed of three parts of initials, finals and tones. Is commonly known as “zero initial syllables, which is not consonant initials of syllables,” Ann “(ā n), for example, the sound is not consonant at the beginning, but with the vowel at the beginning of a, this is” zero initial syllables.

How to classify the vowel of Putonghua?

Putonghua has 39 vowels, of which 23 are played by vowels, and 16 are composed of nasal-assisted phonological tails with vowels. According to the structure characteristics of the vowel, the finals are divided into three categories, namely: Single finals, complex vowels, nasal.

The first type is single rhymes, composed of pure vowel finals called single finals. Mandarin has 10 single finals, including surface unit rhyme mother tongue has seven, they are: a, o, e, e, I, u, u, special vowel finals have 3, they are: -i (former), – I (back), er.

The second category is complex vowels. Complex vowels are composed of compound vowel vowels. Compound vowels are composed of a string of vowel phonemes that are synthetically acoustically combined into a fixed group of phonetic matrices. The complex vowels can be divided into the former vowel, the second vowel and the middle vowel in accordance with the difference of the front and rear positions of the main vowel. The former vowel refers to the complex vowel in front of the main vowel, and there are 4 : Ai, ei, ao, ou. After the vowel refers to the main vowel after the complex vowels, there are five: ia, ie, ua, uo, ue. In the vowel refers to the main vowel vowels in the middle of the vowels There are 4: iao, iou, uai, uei

The third category is the nasal vowel nasal consonants n or ng as the end of the vowel called nasal vowel Mandarin nasal vowels a total of 16, divided into two kinds of one is the tongue nasal vocal n called vocal nasal vowels, there are 8: An, ian, uan, uan, en, in, uen, un; the other is with nasal consonant nasal nasal vowel, there are 8: ang, iang, uang, eng, ing, ueng, ong, iong.

What is the internal structure of the vowel?

Vowel internal structure can be divided into rhyme, rhyme abdomen, rhyme end three parts, such as rhyme iao, which i called rhyme, also known as voice; a called rhyme; o called rhyme. , Pronounced when the opening degree is louder, the loudest voice, but not every vowel has rhyme, rhyme abdomen, rhyme in these three parts.Only the rhyme and rhyme abdomen, such as vowels ia, uo üe, which i , U, u is the rhyme, a, o, e is the rhyme abdomen; some rhyme abdomen and rhyme, such as vowels ai, ei, ao, en, where a, e, a, e is rhyme abdomen, There are only rhyme in the mandarin vowel, there are only 3 rhyme in the mandarin vowel, only 4 in the rhyme, including vowel i, u (including ao, iao In the o) two consonants and vowels n, ng two.But the vowel in the vowels is indispensable.

How is the relationship between initials and consonants?

Initial consonants and consonants are two different concepts. The initial consonants are divided from the perspective of the analysis of syllable structure, while the consonants are proposed from the perspective of the analysis of phoneme properties. Compared with vowels, consonants are mainly characterized by airflow in the vocal organs Was somewhat obstructed or obstructed by strong airflow and part of the muscular tone involved in the airflow control of the vocal organs.The consonants were accentuated, but the consonants were not all initial consonants.As in the syllable “guāng” ng “, it is a consonant, but it sits behind the syllable, so it’s not the initial. And the” nán “syllable, before and after, has” n “which is the consonant at the beginning of the syllable Initials, at the end of the syllable are vowels, not initials.

Initials and vowels how the relationship?

Initials and vowels are not the same concept. Vowels are concerned with the location of phonemes in syllables, and vowels are in the nature of phonemes. The main features of vowels are that the airflow is unobstructed in the mouth and the airflow is weak , Vocal organ vibration balance, vocal cord vibration when normal pronunciation. Vowels can be used as vowel alone, such as: a, o, e, i, u, u, etc. These vowels are played by the compound vowels, en, in, ün, etc. These vowels are composed of vowel and nasal consonant ending. It can be seen from the above example that all vowels can be used as vowels or as an integral part of vowels, but vowels are not all vowels, The consonants n, ng can also be combined with the vowel vowels can be seen vowel range than the vowel.

What is the tone? What is the role of tone?

Tone refers to the rise and fall of a syllable when it is pronounced. The tone is mainly a phenomenon of pitch variation, which is also reflected in the change of pitch length. The pitch depends on how many times the body vibrates in a certain period of time, On the other hand, the lower the sound, the lower the sound is, and the tighter the sound is, the more times the sound vibrates within a certain period of time, the louder the sound is and the louder the vocal cords are, and the less the sound is vibrated for a certain period of time, The vocal cords can be adjusted at any time, resulting in a variety of pitch changes, resulting in different tones. In Chinese, a syllable is usually a Chinese character, so the tone is also called tone. Tone is an integral part of the syllable structure Part, which plays an important role in distinguishing, such as “subject matter” and “genre”, “practice” and “connection”, etc. The differences in the meanings of these terms mainly depend on the tone.

What is pinyin? How do you spell?

Pinyin is a process of spell syllables, it is according to the mandarin syllables constitute law of spell initials, finals rapid continuous merger and tone of voice and become a syllable. Pinyin main point is: “before (initials) light after a short note (final), connected to two sounds a touch.” to keep in mind when pinyin mandarin initials and finals of law:

There is a combination of the initials n and the zero initials and the exhalation, the pinion and the summary.

The initials f, g, k, h, zh, ch, r, z, c, s are only in the same breath.

The initials j, x, and q are only combined with the qi and pinion.

The initials b, p, m, d and t are spelled out in different summaries.

There is a relationship between the vocals and other initials that are removed from j, q and x.

It is only in conjunction with j, q, x, n, l and zero.

Pinyin when must pay attention to the correct pronunciation of initials, finals and tones note values. To read the initials, don’t read aloud shout pronunciation (teaching, behind the initials with different vowel sounds, the sound is called the call sounds); It is necessary to read the finals as a whole, not to break up the rhyme, rhyme, and rhyme. To see the tune, read the alignment.

Common spelling methods are the following:

Phonological two spelling – the vowel as a whole, used to match with the initials. Such as: h-ào → (Hao).

Initial consonant spelling – first find out the initial consonant pronunciation position, put the sound posture, and then sank vowels, spell syllables. Such as: spelling bā (Pakistan), first close your lips, hold your breath and put it well Send b tone posture, and then pronounced a, a syllable.

Three spelling read the law – is to syllables with voice-mediated analysis into sound, medium, rhyme three components, Pinyin read as a syllable. Such as: q-i-áng qiáng (strong)

Acoustic intercourse mother and vowel connection method – is the consonants and vowels (mother) together to form a phonetic component, followed by the vowel spell. Such as: gu-āng → guāng (light).

What is softly? Judge softly what is the law?

In a word or sentence, soft syllables often lose their original tone and are read as lighter and shorter tones, which are lighter and shorter, softly. Softly from the Yin Ping, Yang Ping, on the sound, the tone of the four changes from the tone as a tone of change phonetic phenomenon must be reflected in the words and sentences, therefore, the light syllable pronunciation can not exist independently.

Softly on some words have a different meaning of meaning .As brother xiōng di (referring to brother) – brother xiōng dì (referring to brother and brother)

Softly distinguish words from words and parts of speech such as: duì tou (enemy, opponent, noun) – to the head duì tóu (correct, appropriate, adjective)

In addition, there are some second syllable words are used to read the second syllable softly, and does not distinguish the word meaning or part of the role of the word, such as: air, consultation, husband.

Whether to read a softly tone words, generally have the following rules to follow:

⑴ Mood words “it, you, it, ah,” and so softly.As: OK, okay, go.

⑵ Auxiliary word “, 地, 得, 了, 过, 們” Read softly. 如: 大, 写 了, Affordable.

⑶ noun suffix “son, child, head,” and so softly. Such as: tables, cans, old man.

⑷ position words to read softly, such as: heaven, at home.

(5) The last syllable of the overlapping verb reads softly.

⑹ stacked words to read softly, such as: brother, doll, orangutan.

⑺ tendency to verb to read softly, such as: come, in the past, dry up.

Light tone syllable tone changes are not stable. Voice training should have been fixed in the grasp of the soft sound phenomenon, that is, the dictionary, the dictionary has income, not readable for softly soft tone syllable generally do not read softly.

Four problems to be overcome when foreigners learn Chinese

It is not difficult for foreigners to learn Chinese, as a Chinese, we can change the position of thinking and feeling. What we say every day is Chinese, and the Chinese word is written, and these two things are simply easy. However, if you have to speak English and write letters every day, many people will begin to have some difficulty.

I have a friend who deals with foreigners every day, and all the friends around me envy her. However, in a few chats with her, I found that it is not easy for foreigners to learn Chinese. My friend told me that many teachers always feel powerless when teaching foreigners because they are not aware of the four problems that foreigners need to overcome when they teach.

The first big question–pronunciation

For foreigners who have not studied Chinese, they do not know the correct pronunciation method of pinyin, and they only use gourd to draw a gourd, unable to pronounce the correct pronunciation. Therefore, for pronunciation, foreigners should first learn pinyin.

The second big question–grammar

Some foreigners can speak a little Chinese, but because the native language environment of different countries, many Chinese words from the mouth of foreigners always make people laugh. This is because grammar is not in place. So the word order is always topsy-turvy.

The third big question-literacy

Because Chinese character writing system is very mad, the component of emissions in two dimensional space, but not like alphabet emissions in one dimensional space, writing Chinese characters are similar to see so many foreigners think is “the family”, can’t tell.

The fourth big question–writing

Chinese characters are a kind of square text, and other countries, compared to the text is a “different”, and the number of Chinese characters are more than thousands, in terms of quantity and quality is a big test for foreigners to learn Chinese.

How to break through the difficulties of Chinese conversation?

When foreigners learn Chinese, the conversation is one of the difficulties. Often when you want to say something, you can’t find the right word, which will greatly reduce your interest in learning Chinese.

So, how can we break through the difficulties of Chinese conversation? Here’s a detailed introduction for you:

For beginner students, start with areas of interest or specialization. In this way, the topic is fixed, there will be some high frequency of words. For example, >>> American student Mark, interested in playing golf. He often talks to Chinese people on the topic of golf.There will be a lot of fixed words, such as “club”, “green”, “caddy” and so on. In the repeated use of these fixed words, but also remembered the expression of these new words, serve two purposes. In this way, students’ learning enthusiasm can be increased. As time passes, students can learn how to behave, and Chinese can be said to be getting better and better.

For mid-level students, some of the above methods are not enough. The most distressing thing for mid-level students is that there is no problem with the daily Chinese conversation, but the deeper topics are somewhat overwhelmed. Therefore, the most suitable for them is more appropriate dialogue, I recommend the learning method is “professional.” Everyone has their own profession, also have their own work. Intermediate students can try more talk about work topics. For foreigners who learn Chinese, the required Chinese is usually a daily conversation + working language. Therefore, mid-level students are able to use their work to learn Chinese. In the classroom to ask teachers more about the vocabulary of their work, as well as their own work in Chinese common language and so on.

In addition, there is a way to recommend to everyone. That is to learn more about their national social and cultural vocabulary when foreigners come to China to study or work, they often encounter such a problem “is there a situation in your country?” What will your country do with this situation? And so on, so, a lot of preparation of some words about their own country or learn Chinese professional books is also very meaningful, and will improve their oral Chinese one way.

How to solve the problem of nasal mixing in Chinese?

In Mandarin nasal, the two consonants, N and Ng, which act as rhyme, are nasal and have clear pre-and posterior points, such as An-ang,en-eng,in-ing,ian-iang,uan-uang,uen-ueng. In this respect, dialects in many places are indistinguishable and confused. Generally after nasal read the situation of the former nasal for the majority.

Want to be proficient in the distinction between the nose before and after the mother, in addition to accurate pronunciation, but also must distinguish, familiar with and remember to contain the word before and after nasal.

Do the following exercises:

Contrast:

An-ang South against busy En-eng instinct Sacred Witness

In-ing Recruit New Mind Ian-iang frontier Lenovo reluctantly

Uan-uang sightseeing broad drilling Machine Uen-ueng temperature-Ong-urn

Ün-iong the use of military warlords two, tongue twisters:

1. Wide pole, short pole, wide short shoulder pole with Coke, short pole bear carbon heavy, wide shoulder shoulder not acid.

2. A cane on the Dongting lake, green rattan hanging golden bell, the wind blowing cane gold ring, wind stop Todo Bell.

3. Chen cannot be said to be the surname Cheng, the surname Cheng can not be said to be surname Chen. Wo mu is Cheng, ear East is Chen. If Chen Cheng, you will be mistaken for someone.

How to distinguish between plain tongue and tongue tone in Mandarin

The tip of the tongue before the sound of mandarin (also called flat lingual) z, c, s and after the tip of the tongue (also called become warped lingual) useful, ch, sh initials of articulation of the tandem, the two completely opposite, many people will put the tip of the tongue after sino-japanese sound before into the tip of the tongue.

If you want to change this situation, you must first master the pronunciation characteristics and rules of these two types of initials, and then you should be able to accurately distinguish the different words that contain two types of initials.

The specific method of differentiation is:

Firstly, the relationship between Chinese and English is distinguished. The combined rules of putonghua sound and rhyme show:

(1) in the words of ua uai uang, the initials are zh ch sh, such as “grab, play, pull, zhuang, bed, double”;

(2) with en finals, in addition to how, and (worse), cen “, “words, words with eng finals, in addition to” layer, “and to” have “to do less number of phonetic element, the rest of the word after the initials are the tip of the tongue. (3) in the word of the ou, the remaining initials are ch, except for the number of “pooled” and so on.

(4) in the words of uen, only the initials of “shun, suck, shun, and blink” are sh, and the other initials are s;

(5) in the word “ong”, the initials are s, not sh.

Secondly, according to the phonetic function of the phonotype, we can deduce the pronunciation of a group of words with the sound by using the known side. There are exceptions to this method, but you may as well try it, but be careful to avoid any discrepancy.

How to learn Mandarin pronunciation

Learn Mandarin voice, including pronunciation and positive two parts.

Pronunciation is the most basic pronunciation of learning requirements. Pronunciation is accurate and listening, the ability to distinguish the sound, so first of all to improve speech resolution. On the basis of mastered the correct pronunciation, but also through repeated practice, to achieve full proficiency.

Phonetic refers to the standard Chinese pronunciation of Putonghua to master Chinese characters and words. It is a kind of memory training to correct the deviation from Putonghua. The difference between the square tone and the Mandarin voice is not without any rules. Knowing the corresponding laws of the square tone and the Mandarin voice, you do not have to memorize a word by word, and you can remember it batch by batch. On the basis of the positive tone, we should also gradually apply it to the actual oral language through reading aloud and conversation practice.

How to learn mandarin well

To learn Mandarin well, you must first understand the correct pinyin of words, that is, pronunciation. For example, some words must distinguish the nasal sounds after the first nasal and the nasal sounds like “l, n” so that your Mandarin pronunciation is standard. At this point you can listen to the recordings in the textbook and listen to the standard pronunciation. Then read more, purely read more, read more, proficient, on the line. Some people say that learning to speak with the northerners, in fact, the northerners say is not standard Mandarin, but their pronunciation is closer to Mandarin. For example, Beijing dialect is. Many people think Peking people speak standard Mandarin, which is not the case. Beijingers like to say “child”, which is a child’s voice. But do you listen to the standard Mandarin that the host speaks on TV? No, so that’s not enough. But he also said that we should pay attention to the news network of CCTV, which is right, because CCTV’s moderators all speak standard Mandarin. In short, there is no shortcut to speaking a standard Mandarin.

To learn mandarin well, the first and foremost thing is to insist every day that this is very important, and at the same time pay attention to discovering your own problems. After finding out your dialect problem, you need to find the right training method, which you can consult the teacher, which can be targeted to be trained. At the same time, listen to the pronunciations of some standard Mandarin people daily, including listening to the radio and good classmates speaking Mandarin. In addition, if you have time, you should do some reading exercises everyday, and practice them in the order of ancient poetry – poetry – prose. In short, study of Putonghua is also language learning, only perseverance, to be effective. As long as the general adhere to 3-5 months, will receive some results, some people will make great progress. Wish you can practice Mandarin!

Tips for learning Chinese in the short term

Now that as Chinese gets hotter and hotter, many people come to China as soon as they have time to learn Chinese in the original environment, so more and more people are learning Chinese in the near future.

There are mainly two types, one is a business person who has worked, knows a few Chinese characters, wants to quickly improve his / her own listening and speaking in China’s language environment in a short period of time, and the second is that he has never contacted a Chinese character or understood Chinese , Want to learn some authentic basic spoken language, lay the foundation for further study. In simple terms is the Chinese advanced type and zero-based Chinese!

Complete teaching plan

First of all, in the teaching plan, content and methods, we must proceed from reality and adhere to the principle of practicality. In the curriculum set up follow-up, oral conversation and other courses. Allow students to conduct effective practice under the guidance of rapid improvement in the use of capacity.

Choose the right teaching material

In the choice of teaching materials also have a targeted choice, so that teaching content and the level of students, the actual life of close contact. At the same time, we should not place too much emphasis on the theoretical and grammatical knowledge of the system. On the contrary, we must emphasize the essential characteristics of Chinese and continue to practice according to this essential feature.

To hear and say ability

Second, adhere to the principle of improving students’ ability to hear and tell oral English, it is unrealistic to emphasize all-round improvement of listening, speaking, reading and writing of four skills within a limited period of time, and that reading and writing can be carried out under any circumstances. Good language environment has a great relationship, we just want to use the hard-won Chinese environment to focus on the practice, it is very important. Many teachers think that short-term students do not have to correct their voices too much. In fact, on the contrary, pronunciation is the foundation of Chinese teaching which runs through the whole Chinese learning process. Moreover, Chinese is a tonal language, and homophones Do not put a good language off, not good at learning Chinese, students develop a foreign language tone, and then want to correct the authentic Mandarin is more difficult.

Choose efficient teaching methods

Furthermore, the classroom should adhere to flexible and diverse teaching methods, such as grammatical translation law, listening and speaking method, audition method, etc., according to the specific circumstances of students, choose the teaching method suitable for them is very important, the image of some intuitive pictures and films will be Greatly improve students’ memory, the atmosphere of the classroom active and active, students learn motivation, the effect is very unusual.

To society as a big class

Finally, we must adhere to the principle of society as a big class. Teachers should encourage students to use what they learn in class and make full use of social practice. By understanding Chinese culture and communicating with Chinese people, they slowly turn learned languages ​​into words. For example, with students to do some tours, this is what they really want to experience, and has repeatedly proved that this approach may be the fastest way to learn the deepest impression!

The most pure Chinese to learn

In recent years, many foreigners come to work in China or study abroad. Most people learn Chinese. I find that many foreigners have a common problem: in any case, also want to understand Chinese in their own language. But what I want to say is that if you want to learn pure Chinese, please give up this method.

As more and more foreigners learn Chinese, more people can speak Chinese. As long as a mouth, the Chinese can estimate their level. Some foreigners, even though they speak fluently, find it strange however that such people fail to learn pure Chinese and are influenced by their native language.

How do babies and children learn a language? Everyone learns their mother tongue spontaneously in their childhood. Childhood we have no thought of forming, will only take pictures, but is the most simple way to learn, sometimes with unexpected results.

In other words, adults should not be restricted by your own native language thinking and logical thinking when learning a foreign language. Of course, this is hard, but try not to think too much, do not always ask why you say it, not to say it. Please simply imitate. Even the simplest sentence, you should do the same. Because this ocean will make your Chinese less mistakes.

How to get rid of the influence of mother tongue?

1, encounter new words, please do not check the dictionary immediately

For example, when you study or watch TV, you often encounter unknown words. This time, please do not open your dictionary immediately, but guess the meaning of the word according to the scene or conversation. Doing so not only memorably, but also makes your Chinese more authentic.

2, met the new words or grammar not in the mother tongue, do not jump guess

Many students, especially Japanese students, this phenomenon is obvious. Due to the Chinese characters in both Japanese and Chinese, many Japanese students unconsciously associate Chinese words with Japanese words, which is easy to make mistakes. If this new word or grammar is not available in your native language, remember what they mean and do in Chinese. Do not be forced to use their own language to remember.

3, master the pronunciation

Pronunciation is the key to listening and speaking. If you do not remember your pronunciation, not only can you not understand others, your own words can not be well communicated to others. Therefore, pronunciation is an important part of mastering pure Chinese.

The above is my own opinion on how to learn pure Chinese, hoping to help the majority of Chinese learners.

Foreigners learn Chinese textbooks

People who have studied language know that a good textbook is very important to their ability to learn a foreign language well. Similarly, when foreigners learn Chinese, choosing a good Chinese textbook is the first step. But now the market’s classic textbooks are very few, a mixed bag, as we live in China, to friends to find good textbooks, but also a very important step in learning Chinese.

Let’s start with some of the qualities that a good Chinese textbook needs.

① content is accurate, such as Chinese ontology knowledge, the scope of application of grammar, translation and the symmetry of the text, often in some textbooks to see the wrong translation and grammar interpretation, directly affect the students to the Teaching Materials Trust degree and interest in learning.

② targeted, students learn the purpose of different, and the language involved is very wide, business Chinese, oral listening, reading and writing, as well as different countries of people’s learning habits, so the textbooks should be carefully classified, students will learn more.

③ interesting, textbooks have no meaning for students will directly affect the enthusiasm for learning. As a teacher, deeply feel that if the textbook is boring, the classroom is extremely boring, the teacher also very laborious lectures, to spend a certain amount of time to mobilize their enthusiasm. Very interesting teaching materials, almost the students themselves have been driven up, the initiative to ask some questions, the classroom effect is better.

④ real-time, a lot of textbooks need to be updated, with the development of science and technology, it seems that every day has changed rapidly, so the change of vocabulary and frequency of use is also changing, some textbooks on the vocabulary are some of the old, not in line with the current social phenomenon and some data, the students do not help the study, and even create confusion. To sum up, it is not easy to choose a good textbook.

Here are a few I think also good learning Chinese textbooks, recommended to everyone.

“Beautiful Bridge” This is a very simple entry level book, especially suitable for European and American students who want to learn spoken English, vocabulary is simple, commonly used, and the grammar is clear and practical, for some want to live in China business people more appropriate, can let them in the shortest time and the Chinese do some basic communication, My students have a very good response to the book as if they were looking for a baby.

“Chinese spoken language crash” This is a major colleges and universities are in the application of textbooks, can be described as a classic, suitable for the system to learn Chinese students, want to pass the Chinese test students, this is a set of teaching materials, from the introduction to a total of 6, the detailed study of grammar. Of course, the requirements of Chinese characters are also relatively high, taking into account the four basic language skills, reading and writing, if students want to engage in translation diplomacy or entrance examination, this is necessary books! Most of the students in Chinese are using the book.

“The Korean Chinese Oral course” Now foreigners who study Chinese, the proportion of Korean people can not be belittled, but also is the most serious study, which is related to many factors, such as economic and political. But Korean people also have their own characteristics, through the Korean language textbooks we can very clearly find the shortcomings of their national textbooks. Their textbooks vivid, topic-oriented, close to the political and economic and cultural issues between China and Korea, very practical, for some of the Korean people who work, is a rare textbook.

A course in spoken Chinese, which is also a series of very thick books, the knowledge of the upper and lower books is relatively overlapping, the grammar content is not much, the practice and topic is very much, so it is more suitable for class course, and it is not continuous class students, for example, many students may take Chinese class, one or two times a week, Such a large class with this book is very good, can let students speak freely to talk about their country’s situation, but also equivalent to a classroom cultural exchange, increased the opening degree, mobilized the student’s enthusiasm.