Foreigners learn Chinese: ten must learn grammar

To learn a foreign language, it is necessary to comb and strengthen the internal knowledge. Many times you can learn by yourself, for example, Chinese vocabulary, Chinese pronunciation practice and reading training, etc. But there is one thing we must pay attention to and need professional teacher instruction, namely Chinese grammar. What are the necessary grammar rules for foreigners to learn Chinese? Let’s sort it out.

noun single plural

This is one of the different parts of the Chinese and other foreign language, such as a lot of quantifier singular expression in “ge, zhang, ping, wan,” etc., and plural expressions with “pingguomen,shulinmen”, “this sentence is not appropriate.

② personal pronouns

Chinese personal pronouns are rather special, the same pronunciation, different Chinese characters, so often “he is not divided,” which is very strange foreigners.

③ interrogative pronouns

There are many interrogative pronouns in Chinese, which are used to express the problem, the structure is almost the same, and what aspects to ask are directly replaced by interrogative pronouns, which is also the grammatical characteristic of Chinese.

④ figures

Chinese digital reading has its own characteristics, such as we have the unit “million and billion” there are 2 sometimes to read two and so on. And many Chinese language and culture also want to combine, these are in learning need to pay attention to.

⑤ time and date

Chinese time vocabulary is a certain law, but is not the same as other languages, so you need to compare memory. And our order of expression is also the opposite of Western culture, including the expression of address, we are from big to small.

⑥”Yes” and “there” are two typical Chinese sentence patterns.

“Yes” and “Yes” are more error-prone grammar parts. “He is beautiful”, “There is a cup at the table” This is a typical sentence that foreigners often mistake. “shi” Although translated into am is are, but in fact only the back of the nouns, if the adjective, we use “very”, he is very beautiful. At the same time, there be a sentence in Chinese also has exactly the opposite expression, such as there is a cup on the desk. In Chinese, we often have this structure, where there is + something, so it should be said that there is a cup on the table. This is the grammatical structure of Chinese.

verbs and time and place expression

This is the exact opposite of the structure of English, which is a linguistic bias. For example, “wǒ gōngzuò zài běijīng, wǒ kāihuì jiǔ diǎn, wǒ huí jiā zuò dì tiě and so on” and I believe that every one should be corrected.

⑧ Chinese negative “bù” and “méi”

In addition to denial, “bù” can and does not form a complement, one denying the past, one denying the present and the future. Are not / no + verb this structure, a certain degree of difficulty, but the rules are also strong.

⑨ complement of the application

This is particularly hard for foreigners to understand, and is a repetitive practice that does not work well. But the Chinese are used almost daily, so it is the top priority. Such as “after dinner, eat it, run fast, well done, etc.” There are many kinds of complement, the result of complement, time complement … … Structure, practice, and more applications is the key to learning

⑩ Bǎ, bèi, gěi, jiào, ràng …

The application of these words is simply to foreigners catch urgently scratching his head, a little careless, “Bǎ” and “bèi” confused, “jiào” and “ràng” confused … … want to language Chinese, follow Chinese The way of expression is perfectly justified.

Read the above ten Chinese grammar, feel good Chinese level foreign friends please raise their hands!

Chinese everyday language

1.Greetings and self-introduction 问候和自我介绍(Wèn hòu hé zì wŏ jiè shào)

(1)A: Hello 你好(Nǐ hǎo)

B: Hello 你好(Nǐ hǎo)

A:My name is 我叫……(Wǒ jiào……)

What is your name? 你叫什么名字?( Nĭ jiào shén me míng zì)?

B: My name is 我叫……(Wǒ jiào……)

A:Who is he? 他是谁?(Tā shì shuí)

B:He is my classmate 他是我同学。(Tā shì wǒ tïng xuã)

A:Where are you from? 你来自哪里? (Nĭ lái zì nă lĭ?)

B: I come from……. 我来自……。(Wǒ lái zì……)

A:Do you speak Chinese? 你会说汉语吗? (Nĭ huì shuō hàn yŭ man?)

B:I can speak a little Chinese 我会说一点点汉语(Wǒ huì shuō yī diăn diăn hàn yǔ)。

A:Nice to meet you 认识你很高兴(Rèn shí nǐ hěn gāo xìng)。

B:I’m glad too 我也很高兴(Wǒ yě hěn gāo xìng)。

Goodbye 再见(Zài jiàn)!

A:Goodbye 再见(Zài jiàn)!

2.Ask for contact information and address 询问联系方式和住址 ( Xún wèn lián xì fāng shì hé zhù zhĭ)

A: Where do you live? 请问你住哪里(Qĭng wèn nǐ zhù nǎ lĭ)?

B:I live in student dormitory 8 homes 111 我住学生宿舍8舍111 (Wǒ zhù xué shēng shù shè 8 shè 111)

Welcome to my bedroom play. 欢迎来我的寝室玩儿。(Huān yíng lái wǒ de qǐn shì Wánr)

A:Ok, thanks for your invitation 好的,谢谢你的邀请。(Hǎo de, xiâxiânǐde yāoqǐng)

May I have your telephone number? 可以告诉我你的电话号码吗?(Kě yǐ gào sù wǒ nǐ de diàn huà háo mǎ man)?

B:my phone number is…… 我的电话是……(Wǒ de diàn huà shì……)

A:Do you live in Florida? 你们在达州住得习惯吗?(Nĭ men zài Dá zhōu zhù de xí guàn man ?)

B:Habit \ not used 习惯\不习惯(Xí guàn\Bù xí guàn)

A:Let’s call it. 我们电话联系吧。(Wǒ men diàn huà lián xì ba)

3.Order and check out 点餐与结账((diǎn cài yŭ jié zhàng)

(1)A:What do you want to eat 你想吃什么(Nǐ xiăng chī shén me)?

We have milk \ bread \ buns \ meat \ rice \ soup … 我们有豆浆\馒头\包子\肉\米饭\汤…(Wŏmen yǒu dòujiāng \bāo zi\ròu\mĭfàn\ tāng…… )

B:I want to eat 我想吃(Wǒ xiăng chī……)

A:Ok 好的。(Hăo de)

B:How much is this? 请问多少钱?(Qĭngwèn duōshăo qián?)

A:money ….元钱(……yuán qián)

B:It’s too expensive, can it be cheaper? 太贵了,可以便宜一点吗?(Tài gùi le, kěyǐ piányi yìdiǎn ma?)

A:That’s alright 那好吧。(Nà hǎo ba.)

(2)

A:Is this something delicious? 这个东西好吃吗?(Zhâge dōngxi hăochī ma?)

B:delicious \ not good 好吃\不好吃(Hăochī\Bù hăochī)

4.Buy something 买东西(Mǎi dōngxi)

A:What do you want to buy 您要买什么(Nĭn yào măi shénme)?

B:I see 我看看(Wŏ kànkan) do you have this pen? 你这有笔吗?(Nǐzhâyǒu bǐma?)

A:is here 在这儿。(Zài zhâr):

B: How much is this? 这个多少钱(Zhège duōshăoqián)

A:5 yuan 5元。(Wǔyuán)

B:Do you discount 打折吗(Dăzhé ma)?Is it cheaper to do it 太贵了(Tài guì le) 便宜一点儿行吗(Piányì yìdiănr xíng ma)?

A:Well, that 好吧,(Hăo ba)that 2 yuan 那2元。(Nàliǎng yuán) How many do you want? 你要几支?(Nǐyào jǐzhī)

B:Two 两支。(Liǎng zhī)

A:Anything else? 还要别的吗?(Hái yào biãde ma?)

B:No. 不要了。(Búyào le)

A:Please walk slowly 请慢走。(Qǐng mànzǒu)

5. Take a taxi 打车(dǎ chē)

A:Where are you going? 你要去哪里(Nǐyào qùnǎli)

B:Go to the supermarket 去超市(Qùchāoshì)

A:OK 好的(Hăo de)

B:I am in a hurry. 我有急事(Wǒyǒu jíshì) Please hurry up 请快一点(Qǐng kuàiyìdiǎn)

B: How long does it take? 大概要多长时间(Dàgài yào duōcháng shíjiān)?

A:Half an hour 半个小时(Bàn gè xiăoshí)

6. Ask the way 问路(wèn  lù)

(1)

A: Excuse me请问(Qǐngwèn), where is the post office 邮局在哪里(yóujúzài nǎlĭ)?

B:Going forward 向前走(Xiàng qián zǒu)

A:Excuse me, thanks 打扰你了,谢谢.(Dǎrǎo nǐlē, xiâxiâ)

B:t does not matter 没关系。(Mãi guān xi

(2)

A: How to go to the shopping park 怎么去购物公园(Zěnme qùgòuwùgōngyuán)?

B:Turn left 往左拐(Wǎng zuǒguǎi)。

(3)

A:Where are the toilets? 洗手间在什么地方(Xǐshǒujiān zài shénme dìfāng)?

B: I’m sorry, I do not know 对不起,我不知道。(Duìbuqǐ, wǒbùzhīdào)

(4)

A:Is there a restaurant near here? 这儿附近有饭馆吗(Zhèr fùjìn yǒu fànguǎn ma)?

B: across the road 马路对面( Mǎlùduìmiàn )

A: Thank you 谢谢。(Xiâxie)

B:You’re welcome 不客气。(Bú kâqi)

(5)

How to go to the library 图书馆怎么走( Wúshūguăn zěnme zǒu)?

(6)

A:Where are we now? 我们现在在哪里(Wǒmen xiànzài zàinǎlĭ)?

B: We are now in Dazhou, Sichuan 我们现在在四川达州。(Wǒmen xiànzài zài Sìchuān Dázhōu)

(7)

How to get to the train station? 火车站怎么去(Huǒchēzhàn zĕnme qù)?

7. Ask time 问时间(wèn shí jiān)

(1)

A: What time is it 现在几点(Xiànzài jĭdiǎn)?

B:1:00 1点(yī diăn) Do you have something 你有事吗?(Nǐyǒu shìma?)

A:I went to the library at 2 o’clock to read a book 我2点去图书馆看书。(Wǒliǎng diǎn qùtúshūguǎn kàn shū)

B:Great, let’s go together 太好了,我们一起去吧。(Tài hǎo le, wǒmen míngtiān yìqǐba)

(2)

A:What’s the date today? 今天几号(jīntiān jǐhào)?

B:No. 2 2号(Èr hào)

A:Is it your birthday today? 那今天是你的生日?(Nàjīntiān shìnǐde shēngrì?)

B:Yes, today is my 18th birthday 是的,今天是我18岁的生日。(Shìde, jīntiān shìwǒshíbāsuìde shēngrì)

A:Are you born in 1996? 你是1996年出生的?(Nǐshìyījiǔjiǔliùnián chūshēng de?)

B:Yes, I am a rat 是的,我属鼠。(Shìde, wǒshǔshǔ)

A:Happy birthday 生日快乐。(Shēngrìkuàilâ)

B: Thank you 谢谢。(Xiâxie)

(3)

A:What day of the week is tomorrow? 明天星期几(míngtiān xīngqījǐ)?

B:Monday / two / three / four / five / six days 星期一/二/三/四/五/六/天。(Xīng qīyī/âr/sān/sì/wǔ/ Lìu/tiān)

(4)

A:When are you free? 你什么时候有空(nǐshénme shíhòu yǒu kòng)?

B:I have time on weekends 周末我有空(zhōumò wǒyǒukòng)。

A:Let’s go shopping on weekends 那我们周末去逛街吧。(Nàwǒmen zhōumîqùguàngjiēba)

B:Where to go shopping? 去哪里逛街呢?(Qùnǎlǐguàngjiēne?)

A:How about the urban area? 市区怎么样?(shìqū zĕnmeyàng)

B:Well, go downtown 好,那就去市区。(hăo, nà jiù qù shìqù)

A:What do you like to do over the weekend? 周末你喜欢做什么?(Zhōumò nĭ xĭhuān zuò shénme?)

B:I like to play football, play basketball, play games 我喜欢踢足球\打篮球\打游戏(Wŏxĭhuān tízúqiú dălánqiú dăyóuxì)

(5)

A:Do you have a class this afternoon? 你今天下午有课吗?(Nǐjīntiān xiàwǔyǒu kâma?)

B:Yes 有(yǒu)

A:What time do you go to class? 你几点上课(nǐjǐdiǎn shàng kè)?

B: We are 2:40 in class 我们2:40上课。(Wǒmen liǎng diǎn sìshíshàngkâ)

8. Ask for help 请求帮助(Qǐng qiú bāng zhù)

(1)

A:What’s the matter with you? 你有什么事(Nǐyǒu shénme shì)?

B:Can you do me a favor? 你能帮我一个忙吗(Nǐnéng bāngwǒyígè máng ma)?

I’m lost 我迷路了(Wǒmílùl e)。

(2)

A:What’s wrong with you 你怎么了(Nǐzěnme le)

B:I’m sorry to help you 麻烦你帮帮我吧(Máfán nǐbāngbāng wǒba) My meal card is lost 我的饭卡丢了(Wǒde fànkă diū le)

A:Let me help you find it 我帮你找找吧。(Wǒbāng nǐzhǎozhao ba)

B:Thank you 谢谢。(Xiâxie)

Four secrets of fast memorizing Chinese vocabulary

In Chinese teaching, vocabulary teaching is the most important. To convey information in a simple and accurate way, the use of words is even more important than grammar. The history, geography and culture of different countries customs are very different, and vocabulary is the most accurate reflection of the social changes in the mirror, so each country has its own vocabulary system, most of the words can not be used in the medium literal translation, then there is a problem, how to let students accurately understand the meaning of the word, Is the time to test the teacher’s teaching level. We must not copy the explanations in the dictionary, which will only make us more confused. How can you understand Chinese vocabulary? This is a need for some methods.

Four secrets of fast memorizing Chinese vocabulary

1.To explain or literal translation by means of image

For example, some nouns, and simple verbs, adjectives, we do not need to spend too much effort to explain, directly with the physical, body language or simple translation can be explained that too much explanation, but counterproductive.

2. interpretation of the target language in the target language

This is the most used and the most effective way, we should carefully study how to apply better. The advantage of this approach is that it allows students to think more in the target language, increase the number of sentences they practice, and let the students think in the target language thinking. But the target language explanation process also may appear some questions, the teacher uses the word too difficult, the student does not understand, but more speaks more and more Mongolian, increased the study burden. In order to facilitate, we can simplify the interpretation of the method, such as the use of synonyms to explain, antonyms to explain, synonyms to explain, the interpretation of synonyms can not say two words almost, but to emphasize the context of the application of two words. Like “Suddenly” and “suddenly”, the meaning is similar, but the part of speech is not the same, one is an adverb, one is an adjective, suddenly or suddenly, he appears, all can say, but this thing very suddenly, cannot say this matter very suddenly, the slight difference still wants to say clearly.

3.the use of morphemes to explain

The meaning of many words is the sum of the meanings of several morphemes, such as “Escape”, “headache” and “grin”, so it is easy to interpret the meaning of words with morpheme meaning students. Teachers only need to talk about the collocation of words, practical range, color meaning can be.

4. Ebbinghaus Curve

People’s Memory law is U-shaped, do not review the things we do not often see we will forget, so the rate of recurrence is very important, especially the complex vocabulary. And these words are best in the sentence repeatedly appear, otherwise remember not to use is also a common phenomenon. Teachers to let students continue to live in the daily life of these words, and try to expand the other meaning of words, only such continuous accumulation and contact, students can smooth through the vocabulary of this!