What is the pinyin initials?

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What is the initials

The initials, which are consonants used in front of vowels, form a complete syllable with vowels. Other Chinese-Tibetan languages have similar structures. Consonant generally act as the first consonant.

Chinese dialects differ in their initial consonants. In general, Wu and Xiang languages ​​inherit the thirty-six initials of Middle Chinese well. The consonants in Hunan and Wu often reach 29-35. Minji system consonants have undergone great changes. Minhou local consonants are generally fluctuating around 15. In the late dialects represented by Cantonese and Mandarin (including Putonghua), the number of initials is generally about 20, with a consonant of 21 in Mandarin. Gan and Hakka dialects have slightly less initials than Cantonese and Mandarin. We can find a very obvious law in today’s Chinese dialects. The less a consonant of a Chinese dialect is, the more vowels tend to be, and the number of initials and vowels show a complementary relationship. For example, Shantou dialect nearly 90, it has only 15 consonants. A number of central Wuyi, such as Yiwu dialect consonants in the 30 or so, vowels reduced to less than 40. As for the part of Xiang dialects such as Qiyang dialect, there are as many as 35 initial consonants, and the consonants are correspondingly reduced to 27. This interesting phenomenon reflects a neat and deep law and an amazing harmony of beauty. Aroused great concern of linguists. In addition, similar laws exist in other major languages ​​of the Sino-Tibetan language such as Tibetan. The wide distribution of this law illustrates the highly homologous relationship within the Sino-Tibetan language family.

What are the initials

There are 23 initials:bpmfdtnlgkhjqxzhchshrzcsyw

Classification of initials

1. According to the pronunciation part classification (pronunciation part: Pronunciation organ constitutes the obstruction part)

① double lip sound: b p m

② lip tooth sound: f

③ tongue anterior tone: z c s

④ tongue midrange: d t n l

⑤ tongue after the sound: zh ch sh r

⑥ tongue tone: j q x (3)

⑦ tongue root tone: ɡ k h (3)

2. According to the pronunciation method classification (pronunciation method: pronunciation, larynx, oral and nasal flow control mode and status), including three aspects:

(1) hinder the way

① stop sound: b p d t ɡ k

② affricate: z c zh ch j q

③ fricative: f h s sh r x

④ nasal: m n

⑤ edge sound: l

(2) whether the vocal cords vibrate

① voiceless (not vibrate): b p f d ……

② voiced (flutter): m n l r

(3) the strength of the air flow

① air supply tone: p t k c ch q

② do not send sound: b d ɡ z zh j

Initial pronunciation

To distinguish between the initials and hukou tone:

Initials of the sound is the initial sound of initials, without vowels.

The consonant’s calling tone is the tone of a vowel that follows the initials. Such as:bo,po,mo,fo,de,te,ne,le,ge,ke,he,ji,qi,xi,zhi,chi,shit,ri,zi,ci,si,yi,wu,yu。

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