The characteristics of initials, finals and tones in Chinese


Syllable is the smallest unit of speech and the smallest unit of speech that people can naturally perceive. Mandarin syllables are generally composed of initials, vowels, and tones. In general, a Chinese character’s pronunciation is a syllable. Consists of 1 to 4 phonemes Initials are the beginning of a syllable Mandarin There are 22 initials, 21 of which are consonants, plus a zero initial (the zero initial is also an initial) Mandarin has 39 vowels, of which 23 are played by vowels and 16 are composed of vowel nasal consonants. Therefore, mandarin vowels consist of vowels or vowels as the main components.

What are the initials of Mandarin?

The initials of putonghua can be divided into seven categories according to their pronunciation :(1) there are three (b, p and m) in the bilabial. (2) there is one (f) on the teeth. (3) there are three (z, c, s) before the tip of the tongue; (4) there are four (d, t, n, l) in the tip of the tongue; (5) there are four (zh, ch, sh, r) after the tip of the tongue; (6) there are three (j, q, x) in front of the tongue; (7) there are three (g, k, h) in the back of the tongue.

The initials of putonghua can be divided into five categories according to the pronunciation method :(1) there are 6 (b, p, d, t, g and k) of the sound. (2) there are three (m, n, ng, only m and n initials) in the nasal sound; (f, h, x, sh, s, r); (4) there is one (l) on the side note; 6 (j, q, zh, ch, z, c).

Putonghua consonants in accordance with the pronunciation vocal cord vibration or not can be divided into voiceless, voiced two categories. Putonghua initials in addition to m, n, l, r is voiced, the rest are unvoiced.

Putonghua consonants in accordance with the sound intensity at the time of pronunciation, but also can be divided into two kinds of air-to-air and air-to-air sound: air-to-air and air-to-air are paired as b and p, d and t, g and k, z and c , Zh and ch, j and q.

What is “zero initials”?

Every Chinese syllables can be analyzed into two parts, the initials and finals every Chinese characters structure is composed of three parts of initials, finals and tones. Is commonly known as “zero initial syllables, which is not consonant initials of syllables,” Ann “(ā n), for example, the sound is not consonant at the beginning, but with the vowel at the beginning of a, this is” zero initial syllables.

How to classify the vowel of Putonghua?

Putonghua has 39 vowels, of which 23 are played by vowels, and 16 are composed of nasal-assisted phonological tails with vowels. According to the structure characteristics of the vowel, the finals are divided into three categories, namely: Single finals, complex vowels, nasal.

The first type is single rhymes, composed of pure vowel finals called single finals. Mandarin has 10 single finals, including surface unit rhyme mother tongue has seven, they are: a, o, e, e, I, u, u, special vowel finals have 3, they are: -i (former), – I (back), er.

The second category is complex vowels. Complex vowels are composed of compound vowel vowels. Compound vowels are composed of a string of vowel phonemes that are synthetically acoustically combined into a fixed group of phonetic matrices. The complex vowels can be divided into the former vowel, the second vowel and the middle vowel in accordance with the difference of the front and rear positions of the main vowel. The former vowel refers to the complex vowel in front of the main vowel, and there are 4 : Ai, ei, ao, ou. After the vowel refers to the main vowel after the complex vowels, there are five: ia, ie, ua, uo, ue. In the vowel refers to the main vowel vowels in the middle of the vowels There are 4: iao, iou, uai, uei

The third category is the nasal vowel nasal consonants n or ng as the end of the vowel called nasal vowel Mandarin nasal vowels a total of 16, divided into two kinds of one is the tongue nasal vocal n called vocal nasal vowels, there are 8: An, ian, uan, uan, en, in, uen, un; the other is with nasal consonant nasal nasal vowel, there are 8: ang, iang, uang, eng, ing, ueng, ong, iong.

What is the internal structure of the vowel?

Vowel internal structure can be divided into rhyme, rhyme abdomen, rhyme end three parts, such as rhyme iao, which i called rhyme, also known as voice; a called rhyme; o called rhyme. , Pronounced when the opening degree is louder, the loudest voice, but not every vowel has rhyme, rhyme abdomen, rhyme in these three parts.Only the rhyme and rhyme abdomen, such as vowels ia, uo üe, which i , U, u is the rhyme, a, o, e is the rhyme abdomen; some rhyme abdomen and rhyme, such as vowels ai, ei, ao, en, where a, e, a, e is rhyme abdomen, There are only rhyme in the mandarin vowel, there are only 3 rhyme in the mandarin vowel, only 4 in the rhyme, including vowel i, u (including ao, iao In the o) two consonants and vowels n, ng two.But the vowel in the vowels is indispensable.

How is the relationship between initials and consonants?

Initial consonants and consonants are two different concepts. The initial consonants are divided from the perspective of the analysis of syllable structure, while the consonants are proposed from the perspective of the analysis of phoneme properties. Compared with vowels, consonants are mainly characterized by airflow in the vocal organs Was somewhat obstructed or obstructed by strong airflow and part of the muscular tone involved in the airflow control of the vocal organs.The consonants were accentuated, but the consonants were not all initial consonants.As in the syllable “guāng” ng “, it is a consonant, but it sits behind the syllable, so it’s not the initial. And the” nán “syllable, before and after, has” n “which is the consonant at the beginning of the syllable Initials, at the end of the syllable are vowels, not initials.

Initials and vowels how the relationship?

Initials and vowels are not the same concept. Vowels are concerned with the location of phonemes in syllables, and vowels are in the nature of phonemes. The main features of vowels are that the airflow is unobstructed in the mouth and the airflow is weak , Vocal organ vibration balance, vocal cord vibration when normal pronunciation. Vowels can be used as vowel alone, such as: a, o, e, i, u, u, etc. These vowels are played by the compound vowels, en, in, ün, etc. These vowels are composed of vowel and nasal consonant ending. It can be seen from the above example that all vowels can be used as vowels or as an integral part of vowels, but vowels are not all vowels, The consonants n, ng can also be combined with the vowel vowels can be seen vowel range than the vowel.

What is the tone? What is the role of tone?

Tone refers to the rise and fall of a syllable when it is pronounced. The tone is mainly a phenomenon of pitch variation, which is also reflected in the change of pitch length. The pitch depends on how many times the body vibrates in a certain period of time, On the other hand, the lower the sound, the lower the sound is, and the tighter the sound is, the more times the sound vibrates within a certain period of time, the louder the sound is and the louder the vocal cords are, and the less the sound is vibrated for a certain period of time, The vocal cords can be adjusted at any time, resulting in a variety of pitch changes, resulting in different tones. In Chinese, a syllable is usually a Chinese character, so the tone is also called tone. Tone is an integral part of the syllable structure Part, which plays an important role in distinguishing, such as “subject matter” and “genre”, “practice” and “connection”, etc. The differences in the meanings of these terms mainly depend on the tone.

What is pinyin? How do you spell?

Pinyin is a process of spell syllables, it is according to the mandarin syllables constitute law of spell initials, finals rapid continuous merger and tone of voice and become a syllable. Pinyin main point is: “before (initials) light after a short note (final), connected to two sounds a touch.” to keep in mind when pinyin mandarin initials and finals of law:

There is a combination of the initials n and the zero initials and the exhalation, the pinion and the summary.

The initials f, g, k, h, zh, ch, r, z, c, s are only in the same breath.

The initials j, x, and q are only combined with the qi and pinion.

The initials b, p, m, d and t are spelled out in different summaries.

There is a relationship between the vocals and other initials that are removed from j, q and x.

It is only in conjunction with j, q, x, n, l and zero.

Pinyin when must pay attention to the correct pronunciation of initials, finals and tones note values. To read the initials, don’t read aloud shout pronunciation (teaching, behind the initials with different vowel sounds, the sound is called the call sounds); It is necessary to read the finals as a whole, not to break up the rhyme, rhyme, and rhyme. To see the tune, read the alignment.

Common spelling methods are the following:

Phonological two spelling – the vowel as a whole, used to match with the initials. Such as: h-ào → (Hao).

Initial consonant spelling – first find out the initial consonant pronunciation position, put the sound posture, and then sank vowels, spell syllables. Such as: spelling bā (Pakistan), first close your lips, hold your breath and put it well Send b tone posture, and then pronounced a, a syllable.

Three spelling read the law – is to syllables with voice-mediated analysis into sound, medium, rhyme three components, Pinyin read as a syllable. Such as: q-i-áng qiáng (strong)

Acoustic intercourse mother and vowel connection method – is the consonants and vowels (mother) together to form a phonetic component, followed by the vowel spell. Such as: gu-āng → guāng (light).

What is softly? Judge softly what is the law?

In a word or sentence, soft syllables often lose their original tone and are read as lighter and shorter tones, which are lighter and shorter, softly. Softly from the Yin Ping, Yang Ping, on the sound, the tone of the four changes from the tone as a tone of change phonetic phenomenon must be reflected in the words and sentences, therefore, the light syllable pronunciation can not exist independently.

Softly on some words have a different meaning of meaning .As brother xiōng di (referring to brother) – brother xiōng dì (referring to brother and brother)

Softly distinguish words from words and parts of speech such as: duì tou (enemy, opponent, noun) – to the head duì tóu (correct, appropriate, adjective)

In addition, there are some second syllable words are used to read the second syllable softly, and does not distinguish the word meaning or part of the role of the word, such as: air, consultation, husband.

Whether to read a softly tone words, generally have the following rules to follow:

⑴ Mood words “it, you, it, ah,” and so softly.As: OK, okay, go.

⑵ Auxiliary word “, 地, 得, 了, 过, 們” Read softly. 如: 大, 写 了, Affordable.

⑶ noun suffix “son, child, head,” and so softly. Such as: tables, cans, old man.

⑷ position words to read softly, such as: heaven, at home.

(5) The last syllable of the overlapping verb reads softly.

⑹ stacked words to read softly, such as: brother, doll, orangutan.

⑺ tendency to verb to read softly, such as: come, in the past, dry up.

Light tone syllable tone changes are not stable. Voice training should have been fixed in the grasp of the soft sound phenomenon, that is, the dictionary, the dictionary has income, not readable for softly soft tone syllable generally do not read softly.

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